Mathematical Geology

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 627–649 | Cite as

Improvement of Fourier-Based Unconditional and Conditional Simulations for Band Limited Fractal (von Kármán) Statistical Models

  • John A. Goff
  • James W. JenningsJr.
Article

Abstract

We evaluate the performance and statistical accuracy of the fast Fourier transform method for unconditional and conditional simulation. The method is applied under difficult but realistic circumstances of a large field (1001 by 1001 points) with abundant conditioning criteria and a band limited, anisotropic, fractal-based statistical characterization (the von Kármán model). The simple Fourier unconditional simulation is conducted by Fourier transform of the amplitude spectrum model, sampled on a discrete grid, multiplied by a random phase spectrum. Although computationally efficient, this method failed to adequately match the intended statistical model at small scales because of sinc-function convolution. Attempts to alleviate this problem through the “covariance” method (computing the amplitude spectrum by taking the square root of the discrete Fourier transform of the covariance function) created artifacts and spurious high wavenumber content. A modified Fourier method, consisting of pre-aliasing the wavenumber spectrum, satisfactorily remedies sinc smoothing. Conditional simulations using Fourier-based methods require several processing stages, including a smooth interpolation of the differential between conditioning data and an unconditional simulation. Although kriging is the ideal method for this step, it can take prohibitively long where the number of conditions is large. Here we develop a fast, approximate kriging methodology, consisting of coarse kriging followed by faster methods of interpolation. Though less accurate than full kriging, this fast kriging does not produce visually evident artifacts or adversely affect the a posteriori statistics of the Fourier conditional simulation.

simulation conditional simulation fourier methods band-limited fractal variogram fast kriging 

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Copyright information

© International Association for Mathematical Geology 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Goff
    • 1
  • James W. JenningsJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Texas Institute for GeophysicsAustin
  2. 2.University of Texas Bureau of Economic GeologyAustin

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