Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 17, Issue 11, pp 1354–1359 | Cite as

Synergistic Effect of Enhancers for Transdermal Drug Delivery

  • Samir Mitragotri


Transdermal drug delivery offers a non-invasive route of drug administration, although its applications are limited by low skin permeability. Various enhancers including iontophoresis, chemicals, ultrasound, and electroporation have been shown to enhance transdermal drug transport. Although all these methods have been individually shown to enhance transdermal drug transport, their combinations have often been found to enhance transdermal transport more effectively than each of them alone. This paper summarizes literature studies on these combinations with respect to their efficacy and mechanisms.

iontophoresis sonophoresis chemical enhancer electroporation synergistic transdermal 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samir Mitragotri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaSanta Barbara

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