European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 457–463 | Cite as

Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway

  • Marit Aase Rognerud
  • Øystein Krüger
  • Finn Gjertsen
  • Dag Steinar Thelle

Abstract

Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0–74 in the period 1991–1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50–66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed.

Area statistics Deprivation Disability Mortality Socio-economic factors 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Charlton BG, White M. Living on the margin: A salutogenic model for socio-economic differentials in health. Public Health 1995; 109(4): 235–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Concern for Europe's tomorrow. Health and the Environment in the WHO European Region. Copenhagen: WHO, 1995.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Power C. Health and social inequality in Europe. Br Med J 1994 Apr 30; 308(6937):1153–1156.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gjestland T, Moen E. ‘East is east, and west is west...’ A comparative study of mortality in Oslo East and Oslo West during the periods 1890–1940 and 1971–1980. Oslo: NIBR, 1988: 21.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barstad B. Living conditions in urban and rural areas. Samfunnsspeilet 1995; 1: 2–10.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Department of finance and planning, Oslo Municipality. Socioeconomic data for the local authority districts 1994. Oslo: Osto Municipality, 1996; 2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Department of finance and planning, Oslo Municipality. The budget proposal from the administration for 1997. Documentation of the budget proposals for the local authority districts. Oslo: Oslo Municipality, 1996.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagen K, Djuve AB, Vogt P. Oslo: The divided city? Oslo: FAFO, 1994: 161.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Holme I, Helgeland A, Hjermann I, Leren P, Lund-Larsen PG. The Oslo study: Four year mortality by some socio-economic indicators. The Oslo Study. J Epidemiol Community Health 1980; 34: 48–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Aarø LE. Health behaviour and socioeconomic status. A survey among the adult population in Norway. Bergen: University of Bergen, 1986.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dahl E. Social inequality in health. An analysis of Norwegian studies. Oslo: National institute of Public Health, 1988: 7.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jacobsen BK, Thelle DS. Risk factors for coronary heart disease and level of education. The Tromso heart study. Am J of Epidem 1988 May; 127(5): 923–932.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Forde OH, Thelle DS. The Tromso heart study. A multiple regression analysis of the relationship between coronary risk factors and some physical and social variables. Scan J of Social Med 1980; 8(2): 49–54.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kleinschmidt I, Hill M, Elliot P. Smoking behaviour can be predicted by neighbourhood deprivation measures. J Epidemiol Community Health 1995; 49(suppl 2): 72–77.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith G D, Dorling D: ‘I'm all right, John’: Voting patterns and mortality in England and Wales, 1981–1992. Br Med J 1996; 313: 1573–1577.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Durkin MS, Davidson LL, Kuhn L, O'Connor P, Barlow B. Low income neighbourhood and the risk of severe paediatric injury: A mall area analysis in northern Manhatten. Am J Public Health. 1994 Apr; 84(4): 587–592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Beer V, Bisig B, Gutzwiller F. Social class gradients in years of potential life lost in Switzerland. Soc Sci Med. 1993 Oct; 37(8): 1011–1018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hammerstrom A. Health consequences of youth unemployment-review from a gender perspective. Soc Sci Med 1994 Mar; 38(5): 699–709.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Turner JB. Economic context and the health of unemployment. J Health Soc Behav 1995 Sep; 36(3): 213–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kristoffersen LB. High mortality in big cities. Oslo: NIBR, 1987: 8.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Otterstad HK. Health services are best for healthy people. Oslo: National Institute of Public Health, 1980: 2.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wilkninson RG. Income distribution and life expectancy. Br Med J 1992; 304: 165–168.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Corvalan C, Kjellstrom T. Health and environment analysis for decision making. World Health Statisties Quarterly 1995; 48: 71–77.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mackenbach JP, Kunst AE, Cavelaars AEJM, Groenhof F, Geurts JJM. Socio-economic inequalities in morbidity and mortality in western Europe. Lancet 1997; 349:1655–1659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marit Aase Rognerud
    • 1
  • Øystein Krüger
    • 1
  • Finn Gjertsen
    • 2
  • Dag Steinar Thelle
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre of Preventive MedicineUllevaal HospitalOslo
  2. 2.Central Bureau of StatisticsOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations