Advertisement

European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 13, Issue 8, pp 951–957 | Cite as

Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review

  • Z. Habálek
  • J. Halouzka
Article

Abstract

The survey is based on a total of 1263 records (738 isolations and 525 molecular DNA detections) of five Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. genomic groups available from 26 European countries: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. valaisiana (= VS116) and B. lusitaniae (= PoTiB2). It shows the geographic distribution, the source (ixodid ticks 802 records, fleas 2 records, mosquitoes 2 records, wild mammals 66 records, human patients 391 records) and the association of the genomic groups with particular clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in humans (B. afzelii significantly prevails in skin lesions whereas B. garinii is more often associated with neuroborreliosis). The most frequent genomic groups in Europe are B. garinii (501 records) and B. afzelii (469 records). They occur across the continent and islands, whereas the third frequent genomic group, B. burgdorferi s.s. (201 records), has only rarely been isolated in eastern Europe. The remaining genomic groups, i.e. B. valaisiana (85 records) and B. lusitaniae (7 records) have only been isolated from, or detected in, Ixodes ricinus ticks in a few European countries.

Borrelia genospecies Clinical manifestations Distribution Fleas Ixodid ticks Lyme borreliosis Mammals Mosquitoes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V, Schierz G, Busch KV. Immunochemical and immunological analysis of European Borrelia burgdorferi strains. Zbl Bakt 1986; A 263: 92–102.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Postic D, Edlinger C, Richaud C, Grimont F, Dufresne Y, Perolat P, Baranton G, Grimont PAD. Two genomic species in Borrelia burgdorferi. Res Microbiol 1990; 141: 465–475.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adam T, Gassmann GS, Rasiah C, Göbel UB. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates from various sources. Infect Immun 1991; 59: 2579–2585.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Welsh J, Pretzman C, Postic D, Saint Girons I, Baranton G, McClelland M. Genomic fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves Borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct phyletic groups. Int J Syst Bact 1992; 42: 370–377.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baranton G, Postic D, Saint Girons I, Boerlin P, Piffaretti JC, Assous M, Grimont PAD. Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis. Int J Syst Bact 1992; 42: 378–383.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Péter O, Bretz AG. Polymorphism of outer surface proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi as a tool for classification. Zbl Bakt 1992; 277: 28–33.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wilske B, Barbour AG, Bergström S, Burman R, Restrepo BI, Rosa PA, Schwan T, Soutschek E, Wallich R. Antigenic variation and strain heterogeneity in Borrelia spp. Res Microbiol 1992; 143: 583–596.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Canica MM, Nato F, Dumerle L, Mazie JC, Baranton G, Postic D. Monoclonal antibodies for identification of Borrelia afzelii sp. nov. — associated with late cutaneous manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Scand J Inf Dis 1993; 25: 441–448.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Postic D, Assous MV, Grimont PAD, Baranton G. Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato evidenced by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rrf (5S) rrl (23S) intergenic spacer amplicons. Int J Syst Bact 1994; 44: 743–752.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Assous MV, Postic D, Paul G, Névot P, Baranton G. Western blot analysis of sera from Lyme borreliosis patients according to the genomic species of the Borrelia strains used as antigens. Eur J Clin Microbiol Inf Dis 1993; 12: 261–268.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    van Dam AP, Kuiper H, Vos K, Widjojokusumo A, de Jongh BM, Spanjaard L, Ramselaar ACP, Kramer MD, Dankert J. Different geonspecies of Borrelia burgdorferi are associated with distinct clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Clin Inf Dis 1993; 17: 708–717.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anthonissen FM, De Kesel M, Hoet PP, Bigaignon GH. Evidence for the involvement of different genospecies of Borrelia in the clincal outcome of Lyme disease in Belgium. Res Microbiol 1994; 145: 327–331.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wienecke R, Zöchling N, Neubert U, Schlüpen EM, Meurer M, Volkenandt M. Molecular subtyping of Borrelia burgdorferi in erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. J Invest Derm 1994; 103: 19–22.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eiffert H, Ohlenbusch A, Christen HJ, Thomssen R, Spielman A, Matuschka FR. Nondifferentiation between Lyme disease spirochetes from vector ticks and human cerebrospinal fluid. J Inf Dis 1995; 171: 476–479.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Busch U, Hizo-Teufel C, Boehmer R, Fingerle V, Nitschko H, Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V. Three species of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. garinii) identified from cerebrospinal fluid isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PCR. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34: 1072–1078.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stanek G, Pletschette M, Flamm H, Hirschl AM, Aberer E, Kristoferitsch W, Schmutzhard E. European Lyme borreliosis. Ann NY Acad Sci 1988; 539Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stanek G, Satz N, Strle F, Wilske B. Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis. In: Weber K, Burgdorfer W (eds), Aspects of Lyme Borreliosis. Berlin: Springer, 1993: 358–370.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anderson JF, Doby JM, Couatarmanac'h A, Hyde FW, Johnson RC. Différences antigéniques entre des souches de Borrelia burgdorferi isolées d'Ixodes ricinus en Bretagne. Méd Malad Inf 1986; 3: 171–175.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stanek G, Jurkowitsch B, Kochl C, Burger I, Khanakha G. Reactivity of European and American isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi with different monoclonal antibodies by means of a microimmunoblot technique. Zbl Bakt 1990; 272: 426–436.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hu CM, Gern L, Aeschlimann A. Changes in the protein profile and antigenicity of different Borrelia burgdorferi strains after reintroduction to Ixodes ricinus ticks. Paras Immunol 1992; 14: 415–427.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V, Goebel UB, Graf B, Jauris S, Soutschek E, Schwab E, Zumstein G. An OspA serotyping system for Borrelia burgdorferi based on reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and OspA sequence analysis. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 340–350.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Belfaiza J, Postic D, Bellenger E, Baranton G, Saint Girons I. Genomic fingerprinting of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 2873–2877.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Filipuzzi-Jenny E, Blot M, Schmidberger N, Meister-Turner J, Meyer J. Genetic diversity among Borrelia burgdorferi isolates — more than 3 genospecies. Res Microbiol 1993; 144: 295–304.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fukunaga M, Sohnaka M, Yanagihara Y. Analysis of Borrelia species associated with Lyme disease by rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism. J Gen Microbiol 1993; 139: 1141–1146.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hulínská D, Krausová M, Janovská D, Roháčová H, Hančil J, Mailer H. Electron microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction of spirochetes from the blood of patients with Lyme disease. Centr Eur J Publ Hlth 1993; 1: 81–85.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Korenberg EI, Kryuchechnikov VN, Kovalevsky YV. Advances in investigations of Lyme borreliosis in the territory of the former USSR. Eur J Epid 1993; 9: 86–91.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marconi RT, Konkel ME, Garon CF. Variability of Osp genes and gene products among species of Lyme disease spirochetes. Infect Immun 1993; 61: 2611–2617.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Meister-Turner J, Filipuzzi-Jenny E, Péter O, Bretz AG, Stalhammar-Carlemalm M, Meyer J. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among 9 Swiss isolates of Borrelia burdgorferi. Zbl Bakt 1993; 279: 173–179.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Olsén B, Jaenson TGT, Noppa L, Bunikis J, Bergström S. A Lyme borreliosis cycle in seabirds and Ixodes uriae ticks. Nature 1993; 362: 340–342.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Theisen M, Frederiksen B, Lebech AM, Vuust J, Hansen K. Polymorphism in OspC gene of Borrelia burgdorferi and immunoreactivity of OspC protein — implications for taxonomy and for use of OspC protein as a a diagnostic antigen. J Clin Microbiol 1993; 31: 2570–2576.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Assous MV, Postic D, Paul G, Névot P, Baranton G. Individualisation of two new genomic groups among American Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1994; 121: 93–98.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chetcuti M, Blot M, Meyer J. Genomic variations among Borrelia afzelii strains. Med Microbiol Lett 1994; 3: 423–429.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Cinco M, Costantini C, Wilske B, Graziosi G, Trevisan G, Florian F. Use of polymerase chain reaction and specific monoclonal antibodies as rapid method to recognize Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. afzelii among Italian isolates of B. burgdorferi. Med Microbiol Immunol 1994; 183: 307–313.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dressler F, Ackermann R, Steere AC. Antibody responses to the three genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi in European Lyme borreliosis. J Inf Dis 1994; 169: 313–318.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ferté H, Postic D, Baranton G, Ulmer P, Chippaux C, Léger N. Premier isolement en France (Marne) de Borrelia afzelii a partir d'Ixodes ricinus. Bull Soc Pathol Fr 1994; 87: 226–227.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hu CM, Leuba-Garcia S, Kramer MD, Aeschlimann A, Gern L. Comparison in the immunological properties of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates from Ixodes ricinus derived from three endemic areas of Switzerland. Epid Inf 1994; 112: 533–542.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Junttila J, Tanskanen R, Tuomi J. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in selected tick populations in Finland. Scand J Inf Dis 1994; 26: 349–355.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lebech AM, Hansen K, Wilske BN, Theisen M. Taxonomic classification of 29 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis: A comparison of five different phenotypic and genotypic typing schemes. Med Microbiol Immunol 1994; 183: 325–341.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lovrich SD, Callister SM, Lim LCL, DuChateau BK, Schell RF. Seroprotective groups of Lyme borreliosis spriochetes from North America and Europe. J Inf Dis 1994; 170: 115–121.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rijpkema S, Neiuwenhuijs J, Franssen FFJ, Jongejan F. Infection rates of Borrelia burgdorferi in different instars of Ixodes ricinus ticks from the Dutch North Sea island of Ameland. Exp Appl Acarol 1994; 20: 381–385.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ferté H, Postic D, Baranton G, Ulmer P, Chippaux C, Léger N. Premier isolement en France (Marne) de Borrelia afzelii à partir d'Ixodes ricinus. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 1994; 87: 226–227.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cacciapuoti B, Ciceroni L, Ciarrocchi S, Khoury C, Simeoni J. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the province of Bolzano, Italy. Microbiologica 1995; 18: 169–181.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Demaerschalck I, Benmessaoud A, De Kesel M, Hoyois B, Lobet Y, Hoet P, Bigaignon G, Bollen A, Godfroid E. Simultaneous presence of different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in biological fluids of Lyme disease patients. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 602–608.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gorelova NB, Korenberg EI, Kovalevskii YV, Shcherbakov SV. Small mammals as reservoir hosts for Borrelia in Russia. Zbl Bakt 1995; 282: 315–322.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Humair PF, Péter O, Wallich R, Gern L. Strain variation of Lyme disease spirochetes isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents collected in two endemic areas in Switzerland. J Med Entomol 1995; 32: 433–438.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kovalevskii YV, Korenberg EI. Differences in Borrelia burgdorferi infections in adult Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in populations of north-western Russia. Exp Appl Acarol 1995; 19: 19–29.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Moskvitina GG, Korenberg EI, Gorbaň LY. The presence of borreliae in the midgut and salivary glands of naturally infected adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks during the blood sucking (in Russian). Med Parazitol 1995; 3: 16–20.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nohlmans LMKE, De Boer R, Van Der Bogaard AEJM, Van Boven CPA. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi isolates from the Netherlands. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 119–125.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Olsén B, Jaenson TGT, Bergström S. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato-infected ticks on migrating birds. Appl Environ Microbiol 1995; 61: 3082–3087.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Péter O. Bretz AG, Bee D. Occurrence of different genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ixodid ticks of Valais, Switzerland. Eur J Epid 1995; 11: 463–467.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pichon B, Godfroid E, Hoyois B, Bollen A, Rodhain F, Pérez-Eid C. Simultaneous infection of Ixodes ricinus nymphs by two Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species: possible implications for clinical manifestations. Emerg Inf Dis 1995; 1: 89–90.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boehmer RH, Will G, Busch U, Schweizer C, Jauris-Heipke S, Rössler D, Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V. Genetic variability of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains demonstrated by restriction fragment length polymorphism and probe hybridisation. Med Microbiol Lett 1995; 4: 180–188.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rössler D, Eiffert H, Jauris-Heipke S, Lehnert G, Preac-Mursic V, Teepe J, Schlott T, Soutschek E, Wilske B. Molecular and immunological characterization of the p83/100 protein of various Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains. Med Microbiol Immunol 1995; 184: 23–32.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Strle F, Cheng Y, Nelson JA, Picken MM, Bouseman JK, Picken RN. Infection rate of Ixodes ricinus ticks with Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in Slovenia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Inf Dis 1995; 14: 994–1001.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tuomi J, Rantamaki LK, Tanskanen R, Junttila J. Characterization of Finnish Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and with monoclonal antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 1989–1996.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wilske B, jauris-Heipke S, Lobentanzer R, Pradel I, Preac-Mursic V, Rössler D, Soutchek E. Johnson RC. Phenotypic analysis of outer surface protein C (OspC) of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by monoclonal antibodies: Relationship to genospecies and OspA serotype. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 103–109.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cinco M, Padovan D, Murgia R. Detection by PCR of different species of B. burgdorferi in I. ricinus collected in a defined area of Northern Italy. Parassitologia 1996; 38: 378.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hubálek Z. Anderson JF, Halouzka J, Hájek V. Borreliae in immature Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks parasitizing birds in the Czech Republic. J Med Entomol 1996; 33: 766–771.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Liebisch G, Finkbeiner-Weber B, Liebisch A. The infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the European hedgehoh (Erinaceus europaeus) and its ticks. Parassitologia 1996; 38: 385.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Liebisch G, Hoffmann L, Pfeifer F, Liebisch A. The infection with Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and its ticks. Parassitologia 1996; 38: 386.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rijpkema S, Bruinink H. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato by PCR in questing Ixodes ricinus larvae from the Dutch North Sea island of Ameland. Exp Appl Acarol 1996; 20: 381–385.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rijpkema S, Golubic D, Molkenboer M, Verbeek-De Kruif N, Schellekens J. Identification of four genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in a Lyme borreliosis endemic region of northern Croatia. Exp Appl Acarol 1996; 20: 23–30.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Baradaran-Dilmaghani R, Stanek G. In vitro susceptibility of thirty Borrelia strains from various sources against eight antimicrobial chemotherapeutics. Infection 1996; 24: 60–63.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lottmann H, Wilske B, Herrmann H. Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from Ixodes ricinus in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Med Microbiol Immunol 1996; 184: 181–194.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bunikis J, Olsén B, Fingerle V, Bonnedahl J, Wilske B, Bergström S. Molecular polymorphism of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia garinii in Northern Europe is influenced by a novel enzootic Borrelia focus in the North Atlantic. J Clin Microbiol 1996; 34: 364–368.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Zhioua E, Postic D, Rodhain F, Perez-Eid C. Infection of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) by Borrelia burgdorferi in Ile de France. J Med Entomol 1996; 33: 694–697.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Picken RN, Cheng Y, Strle F, Cimperman J, Maraspin V, Lotric-Furlan S, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Han D, Nelson JA, Picken MM, Trenholme GM. Molecular characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Slovenia revealing significant differences between tick and human isolates. Eur J Clin Micobiol Inf Dis 1996; 15: 313–323.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wilske B, Busch U, Eiffert H, Fingerle V, Pfister HV, Rössler D, Preac-Mursic V. Diversity of OspA and OspC among cerebrospinal fluid isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from patients with neuroborreliosis in Germany. Med. Microbiol Immunol 1996; 184: 195–201.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Halouzka J, Postic D, Hubálek Z. Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol 1997; 11: in press.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hubálek Z, Halouzka J, Juřicová Z. Investigation of haematophagous arthropods for borreliae — summarized data, 1988–1996. Folia Parasitol 1997; 44: in press.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hubálek Z, Halouzka J. Prevalence rates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in European populations of unfed Ixodes ricinus ticks (a review). Parasitol Res 1997; 83: in press.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Leuba-Garcia S, Kramer MD, Wallich R, Gern L. Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from different organs of Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in nature. Zbl Bakt 1994; 280: 468–475.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Livey I, Gibbs CP, Schuster R, Dorner F. Evidence for lateral transfer and recombination in OspC variation in Lyme disease Borrelia. Mol Biol 1995; 18: 257–269.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rijpkema SGT, Molkenboer MJCH, Schouls LM, Jongejan F, Schellekens JFP. Simultaneous detection and genotyping of three genomic groups of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ticks by characterization of the amplified intergenic spacer region between 5S and 23S rRNA genes. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 3091–3095.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Busch U, Hizo-Teufel C, Böhmer R, Fingerle V, Rössler D, Wilske B, Preac-Mursic V. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato strains isolated from cutaneous Lyme borreliosis biopsies differentiated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Scand J Infect Dis 1996; 28: 583–589.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pierer K, Stünzner D, Livey I, Gibbs CP, Kessler HH, Marth E. Investigation of tick-derived Lyme disease Borrelia strains isolated in Styria, Austria. Acta Dermatovener 1996; 5: 93–96.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Foretz M, Postic D, Baranton G. Phylogenetic analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto by arbitrarily primed PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Int J Syst Bact 1997; 47: 11–18.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kirstein F, Rijpkema S, Molkenboer M, Gray JS. Local variations in the distribution and prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomospecies in Ixodes ricinus ticks. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997; 63: 1102–1106.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Z. Habálek
    • 1
  • J. Halouzka
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Landscape EcologyAcademy of Sciences of the Czech RepublicBrnoCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations