Advertisement

Interchange

, Volume 28, Issue 2–3, pp 121–144 | Cite as

Contextualized Science for Teaching Science and Technology

  • Ravinder Koul
  • Thomas M. Dana
Article

Abstract

A comprehensive view of science and technology in curricular reforms and materials is needed to promote public understanding and participation in science issues. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the treatment of the nature of science and technology in science curricular materials in India. Textbook sections on the conceptions of mechanics are the basis for this analysis. A contextualized curriculum for schools is offered as a more productive approach to learning and exploring science concepts, processes, and science-and-technology issues. The controversial Sardar Sarovar Hydro-Electric Project in India is used as an exemplary case that can further this effort. The paper concludes that a contextualized curriculum is potentially quite powerful for addressing the nature of science and technology in school curricula and materials.

Alternate technologies energy textbooks concept analysis question analysis nature of science contextualized science curriculum controversy India 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Biology Science Curriculum Study (BSCS). (1992). Teaching about the history and nature of science and technology: A curriculum framework. Colorado Springs, CO: BSCS.Google Scholar
  2. Brante, T., Fuller, S., & Lynch, W. (Eds.). (1993). Controversial science. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  3. Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  4. Casey, T. (1992). Philosophy of technology: Its nature, genesis, and concerns in Biology Science Curriculum Study (BSCS). In BSCS, Teaching about the history and nature of science and technology: A curriculum framework (pp. 19–28). Colorado Springs, CO: BSCS.Google Scholar
  5. Castro, R.S., & De Carvalho, A.M.P. (1995). The historic approach in teaching: Analysis of an experience. Science and Education, 4(1), 66–85.Google Scholar
  6. Chi, M.T.H., Glasser, R., & Rees, E. (1982). Expertise in problem solving. In R.J. Stemberg (Ed.), Advances in the psychology of human intelligence. (Vol. 1) (pp. 7–75). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, B.I. (1993). A sense of history in science. Science and Education, 2, 251–277.Google Scholar
  8. Dasgupta, P.S. (1995, February). Population, poverty and the local environment. Scientific American, 272(2), 40–45.Google Scholar
  9. Driver, R., & Miller, R. (Eds.). (1986). Energy matters. Leeds, UK: Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education, University of Leeds.Google Scholar
  10. Driver, R., Leach, J., Millar, R., & Scott, P. (1996). Young people's images of science. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Duggan, S. & Gott, R. (1995). The place of investigations in practical work in the UK national curriculum for science. International Journal of Science Education, 17(2), 137–147.Google Scholar
  12. Duschl, R. (1990). Restructuring science education. NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  13. Elliott, D.L., & Nagel, K.C. (1987). School science and the pursuit of knowledge: Deadends and all. Science and Children, 24(8), 9–12.Google Scholar
  14. Engelhardt, T.H., & Caplan, A.L. (Eds.). (1987). Scientific controversies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Fayard, P. (1991). But, where are the cossacks? An alternative strategy for popularization. International Journal of Science Education, 13(5), 597–601.Google Scholar
  16. Feyerabend, P. (1993). Against method. NY: Verso.Google Scholar
  17. Fisher, W.F. (Ed.). (1995). Toward sustainable development? Struggling over india's narmada river. New York: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  18. Gallagher, J.J. (1991). Perspective and practicing secondary school science teachers' knowledge and beliefs about the philosophy of science. Science Education, 75(1), 121–134.Google Scholar
  19. Geddis, A.N. (1991). Improving the quality of science classroom discourse on controversial issues. Science Education, 75(2), 169–183.Google Scholar
  20. Grubb, M.J. (1990a, July/August). Cinderella options, part 1. Energy Policy, 18(6), 525–541.Google Scholar
  21. Grubb, M.J. (1990b, October). Cinderella options, Part 2. Energy Policy, 18(2), 711–723.Google Scholar
  22. Hodson, D. (1992). Assessment of practical work: Some considerations in the philosophy of science. Science and Education, 1(2), 115–144.Google Scholar
  23. Holmon, J. (1986). Teaching about energy: The chemical perspective. In R. Driver & R. Miller (Eds.), Energy matters (pp. 47–52). Leeds, UK: Centre for Studies in Science and Mathematics Education, University of Leeds.Google Scholar
  24. Jenkins, E. (1989). Why the history of science? In M. Shortland & A. Warwick (Eds.), Teaching the history of science (pp. 19–30). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell Ltd.Google Scholar
  25. Johansson, T.B. (1993). Renewable energy: Sources for fuels and electricity. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.Google Scholar
  26. Jung, W. (1994). Toward preparing students for change: A critical discussion of the contribution of the history of physics in physics teaching. Science and Education, 3, 99–130.Google Scholar
  27. Katiyar, A. (1993). Refugees of progress. India Today, September 30, XVIII(18), 64–71.Google Scholar
  28. Kauffman, G.B. (1989). History in chemistry curriculum. Interchange, 20(2), 81–94.Google Scholar
  29. Kipnis, N. (1996). The ‘historical investigative’ approach to teaching science. Science and Education, 5, 277–292.Google Scholar
  30. Klopfer, L., & Cooley, W. (1963). The history of science cases for high schools in the development of student understanding of science and scientists. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1(1), 33–47.Google Scholar
  31. Kuhn, T.S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  32. Kumar, K. (1988). Origins of India's “textbook culture.” Comparative Education Review, 32(4), 452–464.Google Scholar
  33. Kvale, S. (1991). Examinations reexamined. In B.E. Woolnough (Ed.), Practical science (pp. 215–240). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Latour, B., & Woolgar, S. (1979). Laboratory life: The social construction of scientific facts. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  35. Lave, J. (1993). The practice of learning. In J. Lave & S. Chaiklin (Eds.), Understanding practice: Perspectives on activity and context (pp. 3–32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Layton, D. (1973). Science for the people. London: George Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar
  37. Layton, D., Jenkins, E., McGill, S., & Davey, A. (1993). Inarticulate science? Perspectives on the public understanding of science and some implications for science education. Nafferton: Center for Studies in Science Education.Google Scholar
  38. Lubben, F., & Campbell, B. (1996). Contextualizing science teaching in swaziland: Some student reactions. International Journal of Science Education, 18(3), 311–320.Google Scholar
  39. Martin, B., & Brouwer, W. (1991). The sharing of personal science and the narrative element in science education. Science Education, 75(6), 707–722.Google Scholar
  40. Mendelsohn, E. (1987). The political anatomy of controversy in the sciences. In T.H. Engelhardt & A.L. Caplan (Eds.), Scientific controversies (pp. 93–124). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Moreira, R.J. & Poole, A. (1993). Hydropower and its constraints. In T.B. Johansson (Ed.), Renewable energy: Sources for fuels and electricity (pp. 73–120). Washington, DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
  42. Mukund, K. (1988). The hoshingabad science teaching programme. Economic and Political Weekly, October 15, 23, 2147–2150.Google Scholar
  43. National Science Education Standards (NSES). (1996). National science education standards. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  44. Nganunu, M. (1988). An attempt to write a science curriculum with social relevance for botswana. International Journal of Science Education, 10(4), 441–448.Google Scholar
  45. Niedderer, H., Bethge, T., Meyling, H., & Schecker, H. (1992). Epistemological beliefs of students in high school physics. Paper presented at the National Association of Research in Science Teaching Annual Meeting in Boston.Google Scholar
  46. Nielsen, H. (1993). The endless spiral: Teaching history of technology in context. Science and Education, 2, 169–181.Google Scholar
  47. Nye, M.J. (1993). From chemical philosophy to theoretical chemistry. Berkeley, California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  48. Ogunnuyi, M.B. (1988). Adapting western science to traditional african culture. International Journal of Science Education, 10(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  49. Posch, P. (1991). Research issues in environmental education. Studies in Science Education, 21, 21–48.Google Scholar
  50. Putsoa, E.B. (1992). Investigating the ability to apply scientific knowledge, through process skills, among high schools leavers in Swaziland. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of York.Google Scholar
  51. Rampal, A. (1992). Images of science and scientists: A study of school teachers' views. I. Characteristic of scientists. Science Education, 76(4), 415–436.Google Scholar
  52. Ramsden, J. (1992). If it's enjoyable, is it science? School Science Review, 73(265), 65–71.Google Scholar
  53. Reddy, A. (1990). Comparative costs of electricity conservation: Centralized and decentralized electricity generation. Economic and Political Weekly, June 2, 1201–1208.Google Scholar
  54. Reif, F., & Larkin, J.H. (1991). Cognition in scientific and everyday domains: Comparisons and learning implications. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(9), 733–760.Google Scholar
  55. Riss, P.H. (1991). Science controversy. Science Scope, Nov.–Dec., 15(3), 24–27.Google Scholar
  56. Robson, M. (1992). Introducing technology through science education: A case study for Zimbabwe. Science Technology and Development, 10(2), 203–221.Google Scholar
  57. Rogoff, B. (1984), Introduction: Thinking and learning in social context. In B. Rogoff and J. Lave (Eds.), Everyday cognition (pp. 1–8). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Rowell, J.A., & Dawson, C.J. (1985). Equilibration, conflict and instruction: A new classroom oriented perspective. European Journal of Science Education, 7, 331–344.Google Scholar
  59. Rowell, J.A., & Dawson, C.J. (1989). Towards an integrated theory and practice in science teaching. Studies in Science Education, 16, 47–73.Google Scholar
  60. Rubba, P.A. & Wiesenmayer, R.L. (1988, Summer). Goals and competencies for precollege sts education: Recommendations based upon recent literature in environmental education. Journal of Environmental Education, 19(4), 38–44.Google Scholar
  61. Sattaur, O. (1990, September 15). The green solution for India's poor. New Scientist, 127(1734), 28–29.Google Scholar
  62. Sattaur, O. (1991a, August 3). Fair deal denied to people displaced by dam. New Scientist, 131(1780), 10.Google Scholar
  63. Sattaur, O. (1991b, October 5). Greens in muddy water over Indian dam. New Scientist, 132(1789), 16.Google Scholar
  64. Schwab, J. (1978). Science, curriculum and liberal education. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  65. Shapere, D. (1988). The concept of observation in science and philosophy. Philosophy of Science, 59, 485–525.Google Scholar
  66. Shapin, S., & Schaffer, S. (1985). Leviathan and the air pump. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Sinha, C.S. (1992, November). Renewable energy programmes in India. Natural Resources Forum, 16(4), 305.Google Scholar
  68. Solomon, J. (1983). Messy, contradictory and obstinately persistent: A study of children's out-of-school ideas about energy. School Science Review, 65(231), 225–229.Google Scholar
  69. Solomon, J., & Aikenhead, G. (1994). STS education: International perspectives on reform. NY: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  70. Stake, R.E., & Easley, J.A. (1978). Case studies in science education. Urbana, IL: Center for Instructional Research and Curriculum Evaluation, University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  71. Stem, P.C., & Aronson, E. (Eds.). (1984). Energy use, the human dimension. NY: National Research Council, Freeman and Company.Google Scholar
  72. Stinner, A. (1980). Physics and the bionic man. New Scientist, 88, 1232–1233, 806–809.Google Scholar
  73. Sutton, C. (1996). Beliefs about science and beliefs about language. International Journal of Science Education, 18(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  74. Swift, D. (1992). Indigenous knowledge in the service of science and technology in developing countries. Studies in Science Education, 20, 1–28.Google Scholar
  75. Tatum, J.S. (1995). Energy possibilities: Rethinking alternatives and the choice-making process. NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  76. TIFR. (1993, August 21). Sardar sarover project: Review of resettlement and rehabilitation in maharashtra. Economic and Political Weekly, 18(34), 1705–1714.Google Scholar
  77. Toh, K. (1991). Factors affecting success in science investigations. In B.E. Woolnough (Ed.), Practical science (pp. 89–111). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Tuma, D.T., & Reif, F. (Eds). (1980). Problem solving and education: Issues in teaching and research. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  79. White, R. & Gunstone, R. (1988). Probing understanding New York: Falmer.Google Scholar
  80. Wirtshafter, R.M., & Denver A. (1991, June). Incentives for energy conservation in schools. Energy Policy, 22(1), 480–487.Google Scholar
  81. Yager, R.E. (Ed.). (1996). Science/technology/society as reform in science education. New York: State University of New York Press, Albany.Google Scholar
  82. Yakubu, J.M. (1992). Indigenising the science curriculum in Ghana through the science in Ghanian society project. Science Education International, 3(3), 14–19.Google Scholar
  83. Weiner, M. (1991). The child and the state in India: Child labor and education policy in comparative perspective. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Zachariah, M., & Sooryamoorthy, R. (1994). Science in participatory development. NJ: Zed Books Ltd.Google Scholar
  85. Ziman, J. (1980). Teaching and learning about science and society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  86. Zutshi, P., & Bhandari P. (1994) Costing power generation. Energy Policy, January, 75–80.Google Scholar

NCERT SCIENCE TEXTS

  1. Balasubramanian, D., Gaur, V.K., Kulkarni, V.G., Chand, P., Bhat, G., Goel, V.P., Lahiry, D., & Sanchorawala, C.J. (1993). Science: A textbook for class VII. New Delhi, India: National Council of Educational Research and Training.Google Scholar
  2. Bhattacharya, S., Khaparde, M.S., Rastogi, M.P., & Sharma, H.L. (1995). Exploring environment: A textbook for class IV, book II. New Delhi, India: National Council of Educational Research and Training.Google Scholar
  3. Bhattacharya, S., & Sharma, H.L. (1994). Exploring environment: A textbook for class V, book III. New Delhi, India: National Council of Educational Research and Training.Google Scholar
  4. Gupta, K.B., Shukla, R.D., & Mathur, R.N. (1984). Teaching of science in secondary schools. New Delhi, India: National Council of Educational Research and Training.Google Scholar
  5. Sanchorwala, C.J., Chand, P., Goel, V.P., Chinoy, M., Lal, K., Sharma, B.K., Gambhir, V.G., Shukla, M., Pandya, M., & Shankaran, O.M. (1994). Science: A textbook for class VI. New Delhi, India: National Council of Educational Research and Training.Google Scholar
  6. Sharan, B. (1981), Teachers' guide: Environmental studies, class III. New Delhi, India: National Council of Educational Research and Training.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ravinder Koul
    • 1
  • Thomas M. Dana
    • 1
  1. 1.Science Education ProgramPenn State UniversityUniversity ParkU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations