European Journal of Epidemiology

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 19–23 | Cite as

Occurrence of high ratio of males after introduction of minocycline in a colony of leptotrombidium fletcheri infected with orientia tsutsugamushi

  • Mamoru Takahashi
  • Hiroshi Urakami
  • Yoshiya Yoshida
  • Yumiko Furuya
  • Hitoko Misumi
  • Eitaro Hori
  • Akiyoshi Kawamura
  • Hiroshi Tanaka
Article

Abstract

In colonies of Leptotrombidium fletcheri mites infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ot), the agent of scrub typhus, males rarely appear. In the present study, the development of a high ratio of males was observed after introduction of minocycline (MC). A high dose of MC was injected subcutaneously into a mouse, and by feeding unfed larvae from an infected mite colony on this mouse, the Ot in the mites were successfully killed. Of a total of 130 unfed larvae attached to the mouse, 29 developed into females; of these, 9 laid an average of 112.4 eggs/female. Unfed larvae in the succeeding generations were attached to untreated mice. All adults in the P and F1 generations were females, and males started to appear at the F2 generation. The ratio of males to females was 332:7, 108:13, 263:61 and 71:9 at the F2, F3, F4 and F5 generations, respectively. These data suggest that Ot in the ovary or gonad may suppress the development of males.

Infected colony Leptotrombidium fletcheri Minocycline Orientia tsutsugamushi Sex ratio 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Barr AR. Symposium on reproduction of arthropods of medical and veterinary importance, V: Reproduction in Diptera of medical importance with special reference to mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 1974; 11: 35–40.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brimacombe LC. All-female broods in field and laboratory populations of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bull Ent Res 1980; 70: 475–481.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dohany AL, Upham RWJr, Manikumaran C, Rapmund G, Saunders JP. The life history of a colony of Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) fletcheri (Womersley & Heaslip) infected with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Hlth 1977; 8: 221–226.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Furuya Y, Yoshida Y, Katayama T, Kawamori F, Yamamoto S, Ohashi N, Tamura A, Kawamura A Jr. Specific amplification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi DNA from clinical specimens by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1991; 29: 2628–2630.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ikeda H. The cytoplasmic-inherited ‘sex-ratio’ condition in natural and experimental populations of D. bifasciata. Genetics 1970; 65: 311–333.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kellen WR, Wills W. The transovarian transmission of Thelohania california Kellen and Lipa in Culex tarsalis Coquillett. J Insect Pathol 1962; 4: 321–326.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lanier GN, Oliver JH Jr. ‘sex ratio’ condition: unusual mechanisms in bark beetles. Science 1966; 153: 208–209.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Luft JH. Improvements in epoxyresin embedding methods. Biophys Biochem Cytol 1961; 9: 409–414.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Malogolowkin C, Poulson DF. Infective transfer of maternally inherited abnormal sex-ratio in Drosophila willistoni. Science 1957; 126: 32.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Neal TJ, Barnett HC. The life cycle of the scrub typhus chigger mite. Ann Ent Soc Amer 1966; 54: 196–203.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohashi N, Nashimoto N, Ikeda H, Tamura A. Cloning and sequencing of the gene (tsg56) encoding a type-specific antigen from Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Gene 1990; 91: 119–122.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Poulson DF, Sakaguchi B. Nature of ‘sex ratio’ agent in Drosophila. Science 1961; 133: 1489–1490.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rai J, Bandopadhyay D. Vertical transmission in chigger borne rickettsiosis. Indian J Med Res 1978; 68: 31–38.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rapmund G, Dohany AL, Manikumaran C, Chan TC. Transovarial transmission of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) arenicola Traub (Acarina: Trombiculidae). J Med Entomol 1972; 9: 71–72.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Richard S, Luck RF, Hamilton WD. Antibiotics cause parthenogenetic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to revert to sex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87: 2424–2427.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roberts LW, Gan E, Rapmund G, Chan CT, Ramasamy SM, Walker JS. Identification of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in the life stages of Leptotrombidium fletcheri with isolation and immunofluorescence techniques. Ann New York Acad Sci 1975; 266: 73–79.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Roberts LW, Rapmund G, Cadigan FC Jr. Sex ratio in Rickettsia tsutsugamushi-infected and noninfected colonies of Leptotrombidium (Acari: Trombiculidae). J Med Entomol 1977; 14: 89–92.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rousset F, Bouchon D, Pintureau B, Juchault P, Solignac M. Wolbachia endosymbionts responsible for various alterations of sexuality in arthropods. Proc Roy Soc Lond B 1992; 250: 91–98.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shirai A, Huxsoll DL, Dohany AL, Montrey RD, Werner RM, Gan E. Characterization of Rickettsia tsutusgamushi strains in two species of naturally infected laboratory-reared chiggers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1982; 31: 395–402.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Skinner SW. Maternally inherited sex ratio in the parasitoid wasp Nasonia vitripennis. Science 1982; 215: 1133–1134.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stouthamer R, Luck RF, Hamilton WD. Antibiotics cause parthenogenetic Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to revert to sex. Proc Natl Acad Soc 1990; 87: 2424–2427.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stouthamer R, Pinto JD, Platner GR, Luck RF. Taxonomic status of thelytokous forms of Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae). Ann Ent Soc Amer 1990; 83: 475–481.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stouthamer R. Effectiveness of several antibiotics in reverting thelytoky to arrhenotoky in Trichogramma spp. In: Trichogramma and other egg parasitoids. Paris: INRA, 1991: 119–122.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Takahashi M. Ecological study of Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) pallidum, 1: Morphological observations of external genital openings and spermatophores deposited by male. J Saitama Med School 1987; 14: 383–392 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Takahashi M, Murata M, Nogami S, Hori E, Kawamura AJr, Tanaka H. Transovarial transmission of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi in Leptotrombidium pallidum successively reared in the laboratory. Japan J Exp Med 1988; 58: 213–218.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Takahashi M, Yoshida Y, Furuya Y, Katayama T, Murata M, Misumi H, Hori E, Tanaka H, Kawamura, A. Multiple Rickettsia tsutsugamushi types detected by polymerase chain reaction in an infected laboratory colony of Leptotrombidium pallidum. Jpn J Sanit Zool 1994; 45: 279–284.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Urakami H, Takahashi M, Tamura A, Hori E. Electron microscopic observations of the embryo Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) pallidum naturally infected with Rickettsia tsutsugamushi. Microbiol Immunol 1988; 32: 967–972.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williamson DL, Poulson DF. Sex ratio organisms (spiroplasmas) of Drosophila. In: Whitcomb RF, Tully JG (eds), The Mycoplasmas, Vol. 3. New York: Academic Press, 1979: 175–208.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mamoru Takahashi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hiroshi Urakami
    • 3
  • Yoshiya Yoshida
    • 4
  • Yumiko Furuya
    • 4
  • Hitoko Misumi
    • 5
  • Eitaro Hori
    • 6
  • Akiyoshi Kawamura
    • 7
  • Hiroshi Tanaka
    • 7
  1. 1.Kawagoe Agricultural Senior High SchoolKosenba-machi, Kawagoe City, SaitamaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Medical ZoologySaitama Medical SchoolMoroyama-machi, SaitamaJapan
  3. 3.Department of MicrobiologyNiigata College of PharmacyKamishin'ei-cho, NiigataJapan
  4. 4.Division of VirologyKanagawa Prefectural Public Health LaboratoryAsahi-ku, Yokohama, KanagawaJapan
  5. 5.Laboratory of ChemistryKagawa Nutrition University, Komagome, Toshima-Ku, TokyoJapan
  6. 6.Department of Medical ZoologySaitama Medical SchoolMoroyama-machi, SaitamaJapan
  7. 7.Institute of Medical ScienceThe University of TokyoShirokanedai Minato-ku, TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations