# Report on the Construct Validity of the Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale

- 294 Downloads
- 38 Citations

## Abstract

This study evaluated the factorial and convergent validity of theTemporal Satisfaction With Life Scale (TSWLS; Pavot, Diener andSuh, 1998), which was designed to measure past, present, andfuture life satisfaction. A sample of psychology undergraduates(*N* = 223) was administered a questionnaire containing the TSWLSand a global measure of past, present, and future subjectivewell-being (SWB), the Self-Anchoring Striving Scale (SASS;Kilpatrick and Cantril, 1960). Results of covariance structureanalyses supported a 3-factor model (past, present, and futurelife satisfaction as distinct, yet correlated, factors) for theTSWLS, demonstrated that item responding was only slightlycontaminated by an acquiescence bias, and showed that each of thepast, present, and future dimensions of the TSWLS was moststrongly related to its corresponding global SWB rating on theSASS. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

## Keywords

Life Satisfaction Construct Validity Convergent Validity Practical Implication Global Measure## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## REFERENCES

- Anderson, A. B., A. Basilevsky and D. P. J. Hum: 1983, ‘Measurement: Theory and techniques’ in P. H. Rossi, J. D. Wright, and A. B. Anderson (eds.), Handbook of Survey Research (Academic Press, New York), pp. 231–287.Google Scholar
- Andrews, F. M. and S. B. Withey: 1976, Social Indicators of Well-Being: Americans' Perceptions of Life Quality (Plenum Press, New York).Google Scholar
- Arrindell, W. A., J. Heesink and J. A. Feij: 1999, ‘The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS): Appraisal with 1700 healthy young adults in The Netherlands’ Personality and Individual Differences 26, pp. 815–826.Google Scholar
- Beckie, T. M. and L. A. Hayduk: 1997, ‘Measuring quality of life’ Social Indicators Research 42, pp. 21–39.Google Scholar
- Bentler, P. M.: 1990, ‘Comparative fit indexes in structuralmodels’ Psychological Bulletin 107, pp. 238–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bentler, P. M.: 1998, EQS Structural Equations Program Manual (Multivariate Software, Inc., Encino, CA).Google Scholar
- Bentler, P. M. and P. Dudgeon: 1996, ‘Covariance structure analysis: Statistical practice, theory, and directions’ Annual Review of Psychology 47, pp. 563–592.Google Scholar
- Bieke, D. R. and P. M. Niedenthal: 1998, ‘The process of temporal selfcomparison in self-evaluation and life satisfaction’ in P. T. P. Wong and P.S. Fry (eds.), The Human Quest for Meaning: A Handbook of Psychological Research and Clinical Applications (Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ), pp. 71–89.Google Scholar
- Bollen, K. A.: 2000, ‘Modeling strategies: In search of the holy grail’ Structural EquationModeling 7, 74–81.Google Scholar
- Bollen, K. A. and J. D. Medrano: 1998, ‘Who are the Spaniards? Nationalism and identification in Spain’ Social Forces 77, 587–621.Google Scholar
- Braungart, R. G. and M. M. Braungart: 1996, ‘Perceptions of self, the United States, and Europe: A study of Upstate New York university students’ Youth and Society 27, pp. 259–290.Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M.: 1991, ‘The Maslach Inventory: Validating factorial structure and invariance across intermediate, secondary, and university educators’ Multivariate Behavioral Research 26, pp. 583–605.Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M.: 1993, ‘The Maslach Inventory: Testing for factorial validity and invariance across elementary, intermediate, and secondary teachers’ Journal of Organizational and Occupational Psychology 66, pp. 197–212.Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M.: 1994, Structural EquationModeling with EQS and EQS/Windows: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA).Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M. and B. H. Schneider: 1988, ‘Perceived Competence Scale for Children: Testing for factorial validity and invariance across age and ability’ Applied Measurement in Education 1, pp. 171–187.Google Scholar
- Cantril, H.: 1965, The Pattern of Human Concerns (Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ).Google Scholar
- Chamberlain, K.: 1988, ‘On the structure of subjective well-being’ Social Indicators Research 20, pp. 581–604.Google Scholar
- Chang, E. C., A. Maydeu-Olivares and T. D'Zurilla: 1997, ‘Optimismand pessimism as partially independent constructs: Relation to positive and negative affectivity and psychological well-being’ Personality and Individual Differences 23, pp. 433–440.Google Scholar
- Chou, C-P. and P. M. Bentler: 1995, ‘Estimates and tests in structural equation modeling’ in R. H. Hoyle (ed.), Structural Equation Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA), pp. 37–55.Google Scholar
- Comrey, A. L. and H. B. Lee: 1992, A First Course in Factor Analysis, 2nd edn. (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ).Google Scholar
- Costner, H. L. and R. Schoenberg: 1973, ‘Diagnosing indicator ills in multiple indicator models’ in A. S. Goldberger and O. D. Duncan (eds.), Structural Equation Models in the Social Sciences (Seminar Press, New York), pp. 167–199.Google Scholar
- Cottle, T. J. and S. L. Klineberg: 1974, The Present of Things Future: Explorations of Time in Human Experience (Macmillan, New York).Google Scholar
- Curran, P. S., S. G. West and J. F. Finch: 1996, ‘The robustness of test statistics to non-normality and specification errors in confirmatory factor analysis’ Psychological Methods 1, pp. 16–29.Google Scholar
- Diener, E.: 1984, ‘Subjective well-being’ Psychological Bulletin 95, pp. 542–575.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Diener, E.: 1996, ‘Traits can be powerful, but are not enough-Lessons from subjective well-being’ Journal of Research in Personality 30, pp. 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Diener, E. and C. Diener.: 1996, ‘Most people are happy’ Psychological Science 7, pp. 181–185.Google Scholar
- Diener, E., R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen and S. Griffin: 1985, ‘The Satisfaction With Life Scale’ Journal of Personality Assessment 49, pp. 71–75.Google Scholar
- Diener, E. and R. E. Lucas: 1999, ‘Personality and subjective well-being’ in D. Kahneman, E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds.), Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (Russell Sage Foundation, New York), pp. 213–229.Google Scholar
- Diener, E., E. Sandvik, W. Pavot and D. Gallagher: 1991, ‘Response artifacts in the measurement of subjective well-being’ Social Indicators Research 24, pp. 35–56.Google Scholar
- Diener, E., E. M. Suh, R. E. Lucas and H. L. Smith: 1999, ‘Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress’ Psychological Bulletin 125, pp. 276–302.Google Scholar
- Doob, L. W.: 1971, Patterning of Time (Yale University Press, New Haven, CT).Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H.: 1968, Identity: Youth and Crisis (Norton, New York).Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H.: 1982, The Life Cycle Completed: A Review (Norton, New York).Google Scholar
- Fan, X., B. Thompson and L. Wang: 1999, ‘Effects of sample size, estimation methods, and model specification on structural equation modeling fit indexes’ Structural Equation Modeling 6, pp. 56–83.Google Scholar
- Fraisse, P.: 1963, The Psychology of Time (trans. by Jennifer Leith) (Harper and Row, New York).Google Scholar
- Helmes, E., R. D. Goffin and R. D. Chrisjohn: 1998, ‘Confirmatory factor analysis of the Life Satisfaction Index’ Social Indicators Research 45, pp. 371–390.Google Scholar
- Jöreskog, K. G.: 1974, ‘Analyzing psychological data by structural analysis of covariance matrices’ in D. H. Krantz, R. C. Atkinson, R. D. Luce and P. Suppes (eds.), Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology, vol. 2 (W. H. Freeman, San Fransisco), pp. 1–56.Google Scholar
- Jöreskog, K. G. and D. Sörbom: 1996, LISREL VIII: User's Reference Guide (Scientific Software International, Chicago).Google Scholar
- Kahneman, D., E. Diener and N. Schwarz (eds.)</del>: 1999,Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (Russell Sage Foundation, New York).Google Scholar
- Kilpatrick, F. P. and H. Cantril: 1960, ‘Self-anchoring scaling: A measure of individuals' unique reality worlds’ Journal of Individual Psychology 16, pp. 158–173.Google Scholar
- Larsen, R. J., E. Diener and R. A. Emmons: 1985, ‘An evaluation of subjective well-being measures’ Social Indicators Research 17, pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
- Lucas, R. E., E. Diener and E. Suh, E: 1996, ‘Discriminant validity of well-being measures’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71, pp. 616–628.Google Scholar
- Mardia, K. V.: 1970, ‘Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications’ Biometrika 57, pp. 519–530.Google Scholar
- Marshall, G. N., C. B. Wortman, J. W. Kusulas, L. K. Hervig, and R. R. Vickers: 1992, ‘Distinguishing optimism from pessimism: Relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality’ Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62, pp. 1067–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Micceri, T.: 1989, ‘The unicorn, the normal curve, and other improbable creatures’ Psychological Bulletin 105, pp. 156–166.Google Scholar
- Neugarten, B. L.: 1979, ‘Time, age, and the life cycle’ American Journal of Psychiatry 136, pp. 887–894.Google Scholar
- Oppenheimer, A. N.: 1992, Questionnaire Design, Interviewing, and Attitude Measurement (Pinter, London).Google Scholar
- Pavot, W. and E. Diener: 1993, ‘Review of the Satisfaction With Life Scale’ Psychological Assessment 5, pp. 164–172.Google Scholar
- Pavot, W., E. Diener and E. Suh: 1998, ‘The Temporal Satisfaction With Life Scale’ Journal of Personality Assessment 70, pp. 340–354.Google Scholar
- Penckofer, S. H. and K. Holm: 1984, ‘Early appraisal of coronary revascularization on quality of life’ Nursing Research 33, pp. 60–63.Google Scholar
- Roessler, R. T.: 1978a, ‘Rehabilitation implications of life outlook research’ Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 2, pp. 8–16.Google Scholar
- Roessler, R. T.: 1978b, ‘Life outlook, hopes, and fears of persons with spinal cord injury’ Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling 9, pp. 103–107.Google Scholar
- Satorra, A. and W. E. Saris.: 1985, ‘Power of the likelihood ratio test in covariance structure analysis’ Psychometrika 50, pp. 83–90.Google Scholar
- Satorra, A. and P. M. Bentler: 1994, ‘Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis’ in A. von Eye and C. C. Clogg (eds.), Latent Variables Analysis: Applications for Developmental Research (Sage, Newbury Park, CA), pp. 399–419.Google Scholar
- Shmotkin, D.: 1991, ‘The role of time orientation in life satisfaction across the life span’ Journal of Gerontology 46, pp. 243–250.Google Scholar
- Shmotkin, D.: 1992, ‘The apprehensive respondent: Failing to rate future life satisfaction in older adults’ Psychology and Aging 7, pp. 484–486.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G. and L. S. Fidell: 1996, Using Multivariate Statistics, 3rd edn. (HarperCollins, New York).Google Scholar
- Tanaka, J. S.: 1993, ‘Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models’ in K. A. Bollen and J. S. Long (eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (Sage, Newbury Park, CA), pp. 10–39.Google Scholar
- Ullman, J. B.: 1996, ‘Structural equationmodeling’ in B. G. Tabachnick and L. S. Fidell (eds.), Using Multivariate Statistics, 3rd edn. (HarperCollins, New York), pp. 709–811.Google Scholar
- Veenhoven, R.: 1994, ‘Is happiness a trait? Tests of the theory that a better society does not make people any happier’ Social Indicators Research 32, pp. 101–160.Google Scholar
- West, S. G., J. F. Finch and P. J. Curran: 1995, ‘Structural equation models with nonnormal variables’ in R. H. Hoyle (ed.), Structural EquationModeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA), pp. 56–75.Google Scholar