Advertisement

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 200, Issue 1–2, pp 155–162 | Cite as

Dietary vitamin B6 supplementation attenuates hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

  • S. Vaasdev
  • C.A. Ford
  • S. Parai
  • L. Longerich
  • V. Gadag
Article

Abstract

In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) excess endogenous aldehydes bind sulfhydryl groups of membrane proteins, altering membrane Ca2+ channels, increasing cytosolic free calcium and blood pressure. N-acetyl cysteine normalizes elevated blood pressure in SHRs by binding excess endogenous aldehydes. It is known that dietary vitamin B6 supplementation can increase the level of endogenous cysteine. Our objective was to investigate whether a dietary supplementation of vitamin B6 can prevent hypertension and associated changes in SHRs. Starting at 7 weeks of age, animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. Animals in WKY-control group and SHR-control group were given a normal vitamin B6 diet; and SHR-vitamin B6 group, a high vitamin B6 diet (20 times the recommended dietary intake; RDA) for the next 14 weeks. After 14 weeks, systolic blood pressure, platelet [Ca2+]i and liver, kidney and aortic aldehyde conjugates were significantly higher in SHR controls compared to WKY controls. These animals also showed smooth muscle cell hyperplasia in the small arteries and arterioles of the kidneys. Dietary vitamin B6 supplementation attenuated the increase in systolic blood pressure, tissue aldehyde conjugates and associated changes. These results further support the hypothesis that aldehydes are involved in increased systolic blood pressure in SHRs and suggest that vitamin B6 supplementation may be an effective antihypertensive.

aldehydes vitamin B6 hypertension 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Schauenstein E, Esterbauer H, Zollner H: In: Aldehydes in biological systems, their natural occurrence and biological activities. Pion Limited, London, pp. 163–171, 1977Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schauenstein E, Esterbauer H: In: Submolecular biology and cancer. Excerpta Medica, CIBA Foundation Symposium, 67: 225–244, 1979Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vasdev S, Mian T, Ford CA, Longerich L, Parai S: Role of endogenous aldehydes in spontaneously hypertensive and disulfiram-induced hypertensive rats. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 6: 130–140, 1996Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vasdev S, Ford CA, Longerich L, Gadag V, Wadhawan S: Role of aldehydes in fructose induced hypertension. Mol Cell Biochem 181: 1–9, 1998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lumeng L, Li T-K: Vitamin B6 metabolism in chronic alcohol abuse. J Clin Invest 53: 693–704, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lumeng L: The role of acetaldehyde in mediating the deleterious effect of ethanol on pyridoxal 5'-phosphate metabolism. J Clin Invest 62: 286–293, 1978PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lieber CS: Mechanism of ethanol induced hepatic injury. Pharmac Ther 46: 1–41, 1990Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sorrell MD, Ruma DJ: The functional implications of acetaldehyde binding to cell constituents. Annals NY Acad Sci 492: 50–70, 1987Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vasdev S, Barrett B, Longerich L, Ford CA: Ethanol-induced hypertension: The role of acetaldehyde. In: N.S. Dhalla (ed): Pathophysiology of Heart Failure. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA, pp. 77–93, 1996Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vasdev S, Longerich L, Ford CA: Role of aldehydes in hypertension. In: B.K. Sharma, N. Takeda, N.K. Ganguly, P.K. Singal (eds): Adaptation Biology and Medicine (Vol I). Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, India pp. 326–339, 1997Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sprince H, Parker CM, Smith GG, Gonzales LJ: Protection against acetaldehyde toxicity in the rat by L-cysteine, thiamin and L-2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. Agents Actions 4: 125–129, 1974PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Meister A, Anderson ME, Hwang O: Intracellular cysteine and glutathione delivery systems. J Am Col Nut 5: 137–151, 1986Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lehninger AL: Biochemistry: the molecular basis of cell structure and function, 2nd ed. Worth Publishers, Inc, New York, pp. 698, 1978Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Smolin LA, Benevenga NJ: Accumulation of homocyst(e)ine in vitamin B-6 deficiency: A model for the study of cystathionine β-synthase deficiency. J Nutr 112: 1264–1272, 1982PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dillard CJ, Tappel AL: Fluorescent damage products of lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 105: 337–341, 1984PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mandal AK, Bell RD, Parker D, Nordquist JA, Lindeman RD: An analysis of the relationship of the malignant lesions of the kidney to hypertension. Microvas Res 14: 279–292, 1977Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schauenstein E, Esterbauer H, Zollner H: Aldehydes in biological systems. In: J.R.. Lagnado (ed): Aldehydes in biological systems, their natural occurrence and biological activities. Pion Limited, Brondesbury Park, London pp. 1–7, 1977Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Franco-Obregón A, Ureña J, López-Barneo J: Oxygen-sensitive calcium channels in vascular smooth muscle and their possible role in hypoxic arterial relaxation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 92: 4715–4719, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Murphy BJ, Washkurak AW, Tuana BS: Dihydropyridine binding to the L-type Ca2+ channel in rabbit heart sarcolemma and skeletal muscle transverse-tubules: Role of disulfide, sulfhydryl and phosphate groups. Biochim Biophys Acta 1052: 333–339, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zaidi NF, Lagenaur CF, Abramson JJ, Pessah I, Salama G: Reactive disulfides trigger Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum via an oxidation reaction. J Biol Chem 264: 21725–21736, 1989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oba T, Yamaguchi M: Sulfhydryls on frog skeletal muscle membrane participate in contraction. Am J Physiol 259: C709–C714, 1990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bolli P, Erne P, Hulthen UL, Ritz R, Kiowski W, Ji BH, Buhler FR: Parallel reduction of calcium-influx-dependent vasoconstriction and platelet-free calcium concentration with calcium entry and badrenoceptor blockade. J Cardiovasc Pharmac 6: S996–S1001, 1984Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pollard TD: Electron microscopy of synthetic myosin filaments. J Cell Biol 67: 93–104, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Vasdev S, Ford CA, Longerich L, Parai S, Gadag V, Wadhawan S: Aldehyde induced hypertension in rats: prevention by N-acetyl cysteine. J Hypertens (submitted), 1998Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Finkelstein JD, Chalmers FT: Pyridoxine effects on cystathionine synthase in rat liver. J Nutr 100: 467–469, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Takeuchi F, Izuta S, Tsubouchi R, Shibata Y: Glutathione levels and related enzyme activities in vitamin B-6-deficient rats fed a high methionine and low cystine diet. J Nutr 121: 1366–1373, 1991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mayes PA: Structure and function of the water-soluble vitamins. In: R.K. Murray, D.K. Granner, P.A. Mayers, V.W. Rodwell (eds): Harper's Biochemistry. Appleton and Lange, Stanford, Connecticut pp. 599–613, 1996Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Aybak M, Sermet A, Ayyildiz MO, Karakilcik: Effect of oral pyridoxine hydrochloride supplementation on arterial blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension. Arzneimittel-forschung 45: 1271–1273, 1995PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lal KJ, Dakshinamurti K, Thliveris J: The effect of vitamin B6 on the systolic blood pressure of rats in various animal models of hypertension. J Hyperten 14: 355–363, 1996Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bennink HJTC, Schreurs WHP: Improvement of oral glucose tolerance in gestational diabetes by pyridoxine. Brit Med J 3: 13–15, 1975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Spellacy WN, Buhi WC, Birk SA: Vitamin B6 treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Obst Gyn 127: 599–602, 1977Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Reaven GM, Hoffman BB: Abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism may play a role in the etiology and clinical course of hypertension. Tr Pharmacol Sci 9: 78–79, 1998Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thornalley PJ: Modification of the glyoxalase system in disease processes and prospects for therapeutic strategies. Biochem Soc Trans 21: 531–534, 1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vander Jagt DL, Hunsaker LA: Substrate specificity of reduced and oxidized forms of human aldose reductase. In: H.Y. Weiner (ed): Enzymology and Molecular Biology of Carbonyl Metabolism 4. Plenum Press, New York pp. 279–288, 1993Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leoncini G, Maresca M, Buzzi E: Inhibition of the glycolytic pathway of methylglyoxal in human platelets. Cell Biochem Function 7: 65–70, 1989Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Takatsu T, Kashii C: Cardiac hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. In: K. Okamoto (ed): Spontaneous Hypertension. Its Pathogenesis and Complications. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 166–172, 1972Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Vaasdev
    • 1
  • C.A. Ford
    • 1
  • S. Parai
    • 2
  • L. Longerich
    • 1
  • V. Gadag
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Community Health, Health Sciences CentreMemorial University of NewfoundlandCanada
  2. 2.Grace General Hospital, St. John's NewfoundlandCanada

Personalised recommendations