Social Indicators Research

, Volume 50, Issue 2, pp 225–241 | Cite as

Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals: Their Structure and Relationship to Well-Being in German and U.S. College Students

  • Peter Schmuck
  • Tim Kasser
  • Richard M. Ryan


Aspirations for intrinsic (e.g.,self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling)versus extrinsic (e.g., financial success, appearance,social recognition) goals were examined in German andU.S. college students. The structure of students’goal-systems in terms of goal content was remarkablysimilar in the two cultures, as evidenced byexamination of the ordering of goals. Also, as inpast work in the U.S., German college students whowere especially focused on intrinsic goals had highwell-being, whereas the reverse was true for a focuson extrinsic goals. Some differences between thecultures in terms of specific goals are alsodiscussed.


College Student Specific Goal German College Social Recognition Financial Success 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Schmuck
    • 1
  • Tim Kasser
    • 2
  • Richard M. Ryan
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyKnox CollegeGalesburgUSA
  3. 3.Department of Clinical and Social Sciences in PsychologyUniversity of RochesterRochesterUSA

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