Social Indicators Research

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 135–160 | Cite as

A First Study of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale with Adolescents

  • Rich Gilman
  • E. Scott Huebner
  • James E. Laughlin
Article

Abstract

The psychometric properties of the MultidimensionalStudents’ Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS: Huebner, 1994) were assessed with a sample of adolescents fromgrades 9–12. Results of confirmatory factor analysessupported the hypothesized factor structure. Further,evidence for the convergent and discriminant validityof the instrument was obtained. Acceptable internalconsistency estimates for the Total and domain scoreswere also obtained. These psychometric propertieswere similar to findings of the MSLSS with youngerchildren. Limitations and future researchconsiderations were discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews, F. M. and J. P. Robinson: 1991, ‘Measures of subjective well-being’, in J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver and L. S. Wrightman (eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes (Vol. 1). (Academic Press, San Diego, CA).Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, F. M. and S. B. Withey: 1976, ‘Social Indicators of Well-Being: America’s Perception of Life Quality’ (Plenum Press, New York).Google Scholar
  3. Annas, J.: 1993, ‘The Morality of Happiness’ (Oxford University Press, New York).Google Scholar
  4. Argyle, M.: 1987, ‘The Psychology of Happiness’ (Routledge, London).Google Scholar
  5. Asher, S. R., S. Hymel, and P. D. Renshaw: 1984, ‘Loneliness in children’, Child Development 55, pp. 1456–1464.Google Scholar
  6. Bender, T. A.: 1997, ‘Assessment of subjective well-being in children and adolescents’, In G. Phye (ed.), Handbook of Classroom Assessment: Learning, Achievement, and Adjustment (Academic Press, San Diego, CA).Google Scholar
  7. Basche, M. F.: 1995, ‘Doing Brief Psychotherapy’ (Basic Books, New York).Google Scholar
  8. Bentler, P. M.: 1994, ‘Forward’, in B. M. Byrne (ed.), Structural Equation Modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA), pp. vii–ix.Google Scholar
  9. Browne, M. W. and R. Cudek: 1993, ‘Alternative ways of assessing model fit’, in K. A. Bollen and J. S. Long (eds.) Testing Structural Equation Models (Newbury Park, Sage), pp. 136–162.Google Scholar
  10. Cliff, N. and D. J. Krus: 1976, ‘Interpretation of canonical analysis: Rotated vs. unrotated solutions’, Psychometrika 41, pp. 35–42.Google Scholar
  11. Costa, P. T. and R. R. McCrae: 1992, Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory Professional Manual’ (Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources).Google Scholar
  12. Cowen, E.: 1991, ‘In pursuit of wellness’, American Psychologist 46, pp. 404–408.Google Scholar
  13. Cowen, E.: 1994, ‘The enhancement of psychological wellness: Challenges and opportunities’, American Journal of Community Psychology 22, pp. 149–179.Google Scholar
  14. Crowley, S. L. and X. Fan: 1997, ‘Structural equation modeling: Basic concepts and applications in personality assessment research’, Journal of Personality Assessment 68, pp. 508–531.Google Scholar
  15. DeNeve, K. M. and H. Cooper: 1998, ‘The happy personality: A meta-analysis of 137 personality traits and subjective well-being’, Psychological Bulletin 124, pp. 197–229.Google Scholar
  16. Dew, T.: 1996, ‘The preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for adolescents’, Unpublished doctoral dissertation (University of South Carolina, Columbia).Google Scholar
  17. Diener, E.: 1984, ‘Subjective well-being’, Psychological Bulletin 95, pp. 542–575.Google Scholar
  18. Diener, E.: 1994, ‘Assessing subjective well-being: Progress and opportunities’, Social Indicators Research 31, pp. 103–157.Google Scholar
  19. Diener, E., E. M. Suh, R. E. Lucas, and H. L. Smith: 1999, ‘Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress’, Psychological Bulletin 125, pp. 276–302.Google Scholar
  20. Diener, E. and M. Diener: 1995, ‘Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, pp. 653–663.Google Scholar
  21. Diener, E. and R. J. Larsen: 1984, ‘Temporal stability and cross-cultural consistency of affective, behavioral, and cognitive responses’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47, pp. 871–883.Google Scholar
  22. Durlak, J. A. and A. M. Wells: 1997, ‘Primary prevention mental health programs for children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review’, American Journal of Community Psychology 25, pp. 115–152.Google Scholar
  23. Epstein, J. and J. M. McPartland: 1977, ‘The Quality of School Life Scale’, (Riverside, Riverside, CA).Google Scholar
  24. Floyd, F. J. and K. F. Widaman: 1995, ‘Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments’, Psychological Assessment 7, pp. 286–299.Google Scholar
  25. Frisch, M. B., J. Cornell, M. Villenueva and R. J. Retzlaff: 1992, ‘Clinical validation of the Quality of Life Inventory: A measure of life satisfaction for use in treatment planning and outcome assessment’, Psychological Assessment 4, pp. 92–101.Google Scholar
  26. Furr, R. M. and D. C. Funder: 1998, ‘A multimodal analysis of personal negativity’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74, pp. 1580–1591.Google Scholar
  27. Greenspoon, P. J. and D. H. Saklofske: 1997, ‘Validity and reliability of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale with Canadian children’, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment 15, pp. 138–155.Google Scholar
  28. Harter, S.: 1989, ‘Causes, correlates, and the functional role of global self-worth: A life span perspective’, In J. Kolligan and R. Sternberg (eds.), Perceptions of Competence and Incompetence Across the Life Span (Yale University Press, New Haven, CT), pp. 67–100.Google Scholar
  29. Headey, B., R. Veenhoven, and A. Wearing: 1991, ‘Top-down versus bottom-up theories of subjective well-being’ Social Indicators Research 24, pp. 81–100.Google Scholar
  30. Henry, C. S., D. L. Ostrander, and S. G. Lovelace: 1992, ‘Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Family Life Satisfaction Index’, Psychological Reports 70, pp. 1223–1229.Google Scholar
  31. Homel, R. and A. Burns: 1989, ‘Environmental quality and well-being of children’, Social Indicators Research 21, pp. 133–158.Google Scholar
  32. Hoyle, R.H. and A. T. Painter: 1995, ‘Writing about structural equation models’, in R. H. Hoyle (ed.), Structural Equation Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications (Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA).Google Scholar
  33. Huebner, E. S.: 1991b, ‘Correlates of life satisfaction in children’, School Psychology Quarterly 6, pp. 103–111.Google Scholar
  34. Huebner, E. S.: 1994, ‘Preliminary development and validation of a multidimensional life satisfaction scale for children’, Psychological Assessment 6, pp. 149–158.Google Scholar
  35. Huebner, E. S.: 1997, ‘Happiness and life satisfaction’, in G. Bear, K. Minke and A. Thomas, (eds.), Children’s Needs II. (National Association of School Psychologists, Washington, DC), pp. 271–278.Google Scholar
  36. Huebner, E. S. and G. Alderman: 1993, ‘Convergent and discriminant validity of a children’s life satisfaction scale: Its relationship to self-and teacher-reported psychological problems and school functioning’, Social Indicators Research 30, pp. 71–82.Google Scholar
  37. Huebner, E. S. and T. Dew: 1996, ‘The interrelationship of positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction in an adolescent sample’, Social Indicators Research 38, pp. 129–137.Google Scholar
  38. Huebner, E. S. and R. Gilman: 1998, ‘Children’s perception of the quality of their lives: A neglected component in the psychoeducational assessment of children’s well-being’, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, Orlando Fl.Google Scholar
  39. Huebner, E. S., W. Drane, and R. F. Valois: in press, ‘Adolescents’ perceptions of their quality of life’, School Psychology International.Google Scholar
  40. Huebner, E. S., R. Gilman, and J. E. Laughlin: 1999, ‘A multimethod investigation of the multidimensionality of children’s well-being reports: Discriminant validity of life satisfaction and self-esteem’, Social Indicators Research 46, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  41. Huebner, E. S., J. E. Laughlin, C. Ash and R. Gilman: 1998, ‘Further validation of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale’, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessement 16, pp. 118–134.Google Scholar
  42. Kamman, R., M. Farry, and P. Herbison: 1984, ‘The analysis and measurement of happiness as a sense of well-being’, Social Indicators Research 15, pp. 91–116.Google Scholar
  43. Keith, T. Z.: 1999, ‘Structural equation modeling in school psychology’, in C. R. Reynolds and T. B. Gutkin (eds.), Handbook of School Psychology (3rd ed.) (Wiley, New York), pp. 78–107.Google Scholar
  44. Lewinsohn, P., J. Redner, and J. Seeley: 1991, ‘The relationship between life satisfaction and psychosocial variables: New perspectives’, in F. Strack, M. Argyle and N. Schwartz (eds.), Subjective Well-Being (Plenum Press, New York), pp. 141–169.Google Scholar
  45. Lucas, R. E., E. Diener and E. Suh: 1996, ‘Discriminant validity of well-being measures’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71, pp. 616–628.Google Scholar
  46. McCullough, G., E. S. Huebner and J. E. Laughlin: 1999, ‘Life events, self-concept, and positive well-being’, Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  47. Marsh, H. W.: 1990, ‘Manual for the Self-Description Questionnaire-I’ (University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW, Australia).Google Scholar
  48. Marsh, H. W.: 1990, ‘Manual for the Self-Description Questionnaire-II’ (University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW, Australia).Google Scholar
  49. Marsh, H.W., J. K. Antill, and J. D. Cunningham: 1989, ‘Masculinity, femininity, and androgyny: Bipolar and independent constructs’, Journal of Personality 57, pp. 625–663.Google Scholar
  50. Marsh, H.W., K. T. Hau, J. R. Balla, and D. Grayson: 1998, ‘Is more ever too much? The number of indicators per factor in confirmatory factor analysis’, Multivariate Behavioral Research 33, pp. 181–220.Google Scholar
  51. Okun, M. A. and W. A. Strock: 1987, ‘The construct validity of subjective wellbeing measures: As assessment via quantitative research syntheses’, Journal of Community Psychology 15, pp. 481–492.Google Scholar
  52. Pavot, W. and E. Diener: 1993, ‘Review of the Satisfaction with Life Scale’, Psychological Assessment 5, pp. 164–172.Google Scholar
  53. Reynolds, C.R. and R. W. Kamphaus: 1992, ‘Manual for the Behavioral Assessment System for Children’, (American Guidance Service, Inc., Circle Pines, MN).Google Scholar
  54. Rindskopf, D. and T. Rose: 1988, ‘Some theory and applications of confirmatory second-order factor analysis’, Multivariate Behavioral Research 23, pp. 51–67.Google Scholar
  55. SAS Institute, Inc.: 1990, ‘The CALIS procedure: Analysis of Covariance Structures’, (Author, Cary, NC).Google Scholar
  56. Salvia, J. and J. E. Ysseldyke: 1988, ‘Assessment in Special and Remedial Education (3rd ed.)’, (Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA).Google Scholar
  57. Sandvik, E., E. Diener, and L. Siedlitz: 1993, ‘The assessment of well-being: A comparison of self-report and nonself-report strategies’, Journal of Personality 61, pp. 317–342.Google Scholar
  58. Shinn, D.C. and D. M. Johnson: 1978, ‘Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of the quality of life’, Social Indicators Research 5, pp. 395–492.Google Scholar
  59. Steiger, J. H. and J. C. Lind: 1980, May, ‘Statistically based tests for the number of factors’, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Psychometric Society, Iowa City, IA.Google Scholar
  60. Stevens, J.: 1996, AppliedMultivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences (3rd ed.) (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ).Google Scholar
  61. Strack, F., M. Argyle, and N. Schwartz (Eds.): 1991, ‘SubjectiveWell-Being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective’, (Pergamon Press, Oxford).Google Scholar
  62. Tait, M., M. Y. Padget, and T. T. Baldwin: 1989, ‘Job and life satisfaction: A reexamination of the strength of the relationship and gender effects as a function of the date of study’, Journal of Applied Psychology 34, pp. 502–507.Google Scholar
  63. Tanaka, J. S.: 1993, ‘Multifaceted conceptions of fit in structural equation models’, in K. A. Bollen and J. S. Long (eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (Sage, Newbury Park, CA), pp. 10–39.Google Scholar
  64. Tucker, L. R. and C. Lewis: 1973, ‘A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis’, Psychometrika 38, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  65. Veenhoven, R.: 1996, ‘Developments in satisfaction research’, Social Indicators Research 37, pp. 1–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rich Gilman
    • 1
  • E. Scott Huebner
    • 1
  • James E. Laughlin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Counseling and Psychological ServicesGeorgia State UniversityAtlanta

Personalised recommendations