Lossless tapers, Gaussian beams, free-space modes: Standing waves versus through-flowing waves
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It was noticed in the past that, to avoid physical inconsistencies, some basic features of waves flowing through Marcatili's lossless tapers must be different from those of standing waves in the same structures. In this paper, we first present numerical results (based on an extended BPM algorithm) which reconfirm this statement. Next, we explain this surprising behavior as straightforward consequences of Maxwell's equations. Finally, we show that similar situations occur for Gaussian beams in a homogeneous medium, and free-space modes expressed in terms of Bessel functions.
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