A survey on the occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat and maize from western Romania
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Samples of wheat (n = 25) and maize (n = 30) for animal consumption, collected in 1997 after harvest from western Romania, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays for mycotoxin contamination. Toxins analyses included deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetylDON, 15- acetylDON, fusarenone X (FX), T-2 Toxin (T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OA), and citrinin (CT). DON and acetylDONs were the major contaminants in wheat (100%) and maize (46%). Median values for DON, 3-acetylDON, and 15-acetylDON were 880 μg kg-1, 66 μg kg- 1, and 150 μg kg-1 in wheat, and 890 μg kg-1, 180 μg kg-1, and 620 μg kg- 1 in maize, respectively. Additionally, 3,15-diacetylDON was detected in some samples by HPLC-EIA analysis. All samples were negative for FX (<150 μg kg-1). T-2 was found in wheat (n = 6) and maize (n = 1) at levels between 13 and 63 μg kg- 1. DAS (2.6 μg kg-1) was found in one maize sample. ZEA occurred in all wheat and in four maize samples, median values were 10 μg kg-1 and 250 μg kg-1, respectively. One maize sample contained FB1 (140 μg kg-1). All samples were AFB1-negative (<4 μg kg-1). OA was found in one wheat sample (37 μg kg- 1), CT was found in one maize sample (580 μg kg- 1). This first reported natural occurrence of a range of mycotoxins in Romanian feeding stuff shows that DON and acetyl DONs may be present at levels which may affect animal production.
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