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Mycopathologia

, Volume 143, Issue 2, pp 97–103 | Cite as

A survey on the occurrence of mycotoxins in wheat and maize from western Romania

  • Valeriu Curtui
  • Ewald Usleber
  • Richard Dietrich
  • Johann Lepschy
  • Erwin Märtlbauer
Article

Abstract

Samples of wheat (n = 25) and maize (n = 30) for animal consumption, collected in 1997 after harvest from western Romania, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays for mycotoxin contamination. Toxins analyses included deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetylDON, 15- acetylDON, fusarenone X (FX), T-2 Toxin (T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OA), and citrinin (CT). DON and acetylDONs were the major contaminants in wheat (100%) and maize (46%). Median values for DON, 3-acetylDON, and 15-acetylDON were 880 μg kg-1, 66 μg kg- 1, and 150 μg kg-1 in wheat, and 890 μg kg-1, 180 μg kg-1, and 620 μg kg- 1 in maize, respectively. Additionally, 3,15-diacetylDON was detected in some samples by HPLC-EIA analysis. All samples were negative for FX (<150 μg kg-1). T-2 was found in wheat (n = 6) and maize (n = 1) at levels between 13 and 63 μg kg- 1. DAS (2.6 μg kg-1) was found in one maize sample. ZEA occurred in all wheat and in four maize samples, median values were 10 μg kg-1 and 250 μg kg-1, respectively. One maize sample contained FB1 (140 μg kg-1). All samples were AFB1-negative (<4 μg kg-1). OA was found in one wheat sample (37 μg kg- 1), CT was found in one maize sample (580 μg kg- 1). This first reported natural occurrence of a range of mycotoxins in Romanian feeding stuff shows that DON and acetyl DONs may be present at levels which may affect animal production.

deoxynivalenol enzyme immunoassay feed maize mycotoxins wheat 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valeriu Curtui
    • 1
  • Ewald Usleber
    • 2
  • Richard Dietrich
    • 2
  • Johann Lepschy
    • 3
  • Erwin Märtlbauer
    • 2
  1. 1.Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary MedicineUniversity of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of BanatTimisoaraRomania
  2. 2.Institute for Hygiene and Technology of Food of Animal Origin, Veterinary FacultyUniversity of MunichMunichGermany
  3. 3.Bayerische Landesanstalt für Bodenkultur und PflanzenbauFreisingGermany

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