Insulin action in skeletal muscle from patients with NIDDM
Insulin resistance in peripheral tissues is a common feature of non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The decrease in insulin-mediated peripheral glucose uptake in NIDDM patients can be localized to defects in insulin action on glucose transport in skeletal muscle. Following short term in vitro exposure to both submaximal and maximal concentrations of insulin, 3-O-methylglucose transport rates are 40-50% lower in isolated skeletal muscle strips from NIDDM patients when compared to muscle strips from nondiabetic subjects. In addition, we have shown that physiological levels of insulin induce a 1.6-2.0 fold increase in GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle plasma membranes from control subjects, whereas no significant increase was noted in NIDDM skeletal muscle. Impaired insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and glucose transport in NIDDM skeletal muscle is associated with reduced insulin-stimulated IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI3-kinase activity. The reduced IRS-1 phosphorylation cannot be attributed to decreased protein expression, since the IRS-1 protein content is similar between NIDDM subjects and controls. Altered glycemia may contribute to decreased insulin-mediated glucose transport in skeletal muscle from NIDDM patients. We have shown that insulin-stimulated glucose transport is normalized in vitro in the presence of euglycemia, but not in the presence of hyperglycemia. Thus, the circulating level of glucose may independently regulate insulin stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle from NIDDM patients via a down regulation of the insulin signaling cascade.
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