Evolutionary Ecology

, 13:499 | Cite as

Effects of multiple vertebrate predators on grasshopper habitat selection: trade-offs due to predation risk, foraging, and thermoregulation

  • William C. Pitt
Article

Abstract

Predation risk can influence habitat use and activity of potential prey. I explored how the risk of predation by vertebrates influenced the behavior of grasshoppers. I monitored the height in vegetation and the frequency of resting, moving, and feeding behaviors of both tethered and free-ranging grasshoppers under exposure to various predators. Grasshoppers protected from birds remained high in the vegetation, while those protected only from small mammals and lizards remained low in the vegetation. Grasshoppers exposed to all predators occupied an intermediate height. Lower positions in the vegetation were associated with cooler thermal conditions, lower feeding rates, and lower food availability. My results are consistent with the hypothesis that grasshoppers utilize different microhabitats to balance the trade-off between reducing mortality from predators and experiencing greater food availability, and warmer conditions.

behavior birds grasshoppers habitat selection lizards Minnesota predation risk 

References

  1. Abrahams, M.V. and Dill, L.M. (1989) A determination of the energetic equivalence of the risk of predation. Ecology 70, 999-1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aebischer, N.J., Robertson, P.A. and Kenward, R.E. (1993) Compositional analysis of habitat use from animal radio-tracking data. Ecology 74, 1313-1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anten, N.P.R., Miyazawa, K., Hikosaka, K., Nagashima, H. and Hirose, T. (1998) Leaf nitrogen distribution in relation to leaf age and photon flux denisty in dominant and subordinate plants in dense stands of a dicotyledonous herb. Oecologia 113, 314-324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Begon, M. (1983) Grasshopper populations and weather: the effects of insolation on Chorthippus brunneus. Ecol. Entomol. 8, 361-370.Google Scholar
  5. Belovsky, G.E. (1984) Snowshoe hare optimal foraging and its implications for population dynamics. Theor. Pop. Biol. 25, 235-264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Belovsky, G.E. and Jordan, P.A. (1978) The time-energy budget of moose. Theor. Pop. Biol. 14, 76-104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belovsky, G.E. and Slade, J.B. (1993) The role of vertebrate and invertebrate predators in a grasshopper community. Oikos 68, 193-201.Google Scholar
  8. Belovsky, G.E. and Slade, J.B. (1995) Dynamics of some Montana grasshopper populations: relationships among weather, food abundance and intraspecific competition. Oecologia 101, 383-396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belovsky, G.E., Slade, J.B. and Stockhoff, B.A. (1990) Susceptibility to predation for different grasshoppers: an experimental study. Ecology 71, 624-634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernays, E.A. and Bright, K.L. (1993) Mechanisms of dietary mixing in grasshoppers: a review. Comp. Biochem. Pysiol. 104A, 125-131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertram, B.C. (1980) Vigalence and group size in ostriches. Anim. Behav. 28, 276-286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bock, C.E., Bock, J.H. and Grant, M.C. (1992) Effects of bird predation on grasshopper densities in an Arizona grassland. Ecology 73, 1706-1717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breckenridge, W.J. (1943) The life history of the black-banded skink Eumeces septentrionalis septentrionalis(Baird). Am. Midl. Nat. 29, 591-606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caraco, T. (1979) Time budgeting and group size: a test of theory. Ecology 60, 618-627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chapman, R.F. (1990) Food selection. In R.F. Chapman and A. Joern (eds) Biology of Grasshoppers, John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 39-72.Google Scholar
  16. Chappell, M.A. and Whitman, D.W. (1990) Grasshopper thermoregulation. In R.F. Chapman and A. Joern (eds) Biology of Grasshoppers. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 143-172.Google Scholar
  17. Chase, J.M. (1996) Abiotic controls of trophic cascades in a simple grassland food chain. Oikos 77, 495-506.Google Scholar
  18. Churchfield, S., Hollier, J. and Brown, V.K. (1991) The effects of small mammal predators on grassland invertebrates, investigated by field exclosure experiment. Oikos 60, 283-290.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, T.L. and Messina, F.J. (1998) Plant architecture and the foraging success of ladybird beetles attacking the Russian wheat aphid. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 86, 153-161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Climatology Working Group. (1999) Temperature Summary: Cambridge State Hospital. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  21. Crowl, T.A. and Covich, A.P. (1994) Responses of a freshwater shrimp to chemical and tactile stimuli from a large decapod predator. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 13, 291-298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davis, M.A., Peterson, D.W., Reich, P.B., Crozier, M., Query, T., Mitchell, E. and Huntington, J. (2000) Restoring savanna using fire: impact on breeding bird community. Restoration Ecol. 8, 30-40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Elston, D.A. Illius, A.W. and Jordan, I.J. (1996) Assessment of preference among a range of options using log radio analysis. Ecology 77, 2538-2548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Feminella, J.W. and Hawkins, C.P. (1994) Tailed frog tadpoles differentially alter their feeding behavior in response to non-visual cues from four predators. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 13, 310-320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Field, C. (1983) Allocating leaf nitrogen for the maximization of carbon gain: leaf age as a control on the allocation program. Oecologia 56, 341-347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler, A.C., Knight, R.L. and George, T.L. (1991) Effects of avian predation on grasshopper populations in North Dakota grasslands. Ecology 72, 1775-1781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fretwell, S.D. (1972) Populations in a seasonal environment. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 217 pp.Google Scholar
  28. Gage, S.H. and Mukerji, M.K. (1977) A perspective of grasshopper population distributions in Saskatchewan and interrelationships with weather. Environ. Entomol. 6, 469-479.Google Scholar
  29. Gates, D.M. (1980) Biophysical Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York. 611 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Gotelli, N.J. (1996) Ant community structure: effects of predatory ant lions. Ecology 77, 630-638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grant, A., Hassall, M. and Willott, S.J. (1993) An alternative theory of grasshopper life cycles. Oikos 66, 263-268.Google Scholar
  32. Harrison, J.F. and Fewell, J.H. (1995) The thermal effects on feeding behavior and net energy intake in a grasshopper experiencing large diurnal fluctuations in body temperature. Physiol. Zool. 68, 453-473.Google Scholar
  33. Heidorn, T.J. and Joern, A. (1987) Feeding preference and spatial distribution of grasshoppers (Acrididae) in response to nitrogen fertilization of Calamovilfa longifolia. Funct. Ecol. 1, 369-375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Heinrich, B. (1977) Why have some animals evolved to regulate a high body temperature? Am. Nat. 111, 623-640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hirose, T., Werger, M.J.A. and van Rheenen, J.W.A. (1989) Canopy development and leaf nitrogen distribution in a stand of Carex acutiformis. Ecology 70, 1610-1618.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Huang, C. and Sih, A. (1991) Experimental studies on direct and indirect interactions in a three trophic-level stream system. Oecologia 85, 530-536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huntly, N. and Inouye, R.S. (1987) Small mammal populations of an old-field chronosequence: succesional patterns and associations with vegetation. J. Mammal. 68, 739-745.Google Scholar
  38. Joern, A. (1986) Experimental study of avian predation on coexisting grasshopper populations (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in sandhills grasslands. Oikos 46, 243-249.Google Scholar
  39. Joern, A. (1992) Variable impact of avian predation on grasshopper assemblies in sandhills grassland. Oikos 64, 458-463.Google Scholar
  40. Joern, A. and Gaines, S.B. (1990) Population dynamics and regulation in grasshoppers. In R.F. Chapman and A. Joern (eds) Biology of Grasshoppers. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 415-482.Google Scholar
  41. Lawlor, L.R. (1989) Direct and indirect effects of n-species competition. Oecologia 43, 355-364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lima, S.L. and Dill, L.M. (1990) Behavorial decisions made under the risk if predation: a review and prospectus. Can. J. Zool. 68, 619-640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Losey, J.E. and Denno, R.F. (1997) The escape response of pea aphids to foliar-foraging predators: factors affecting dropping behavior. Ecol. Entomol 23, 53-61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Losey, J.E. (1998) Positive predator-predator interactions: enhanced predation rates and synergistic suppression of aphid populations. Ecology 79, 2143-2152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McIntosh, A.R. and Townsend, C.R. (1994) Interpopulation variation in mayfly antipredator tactics: differential effects of contrasting predatory fish. Ecology 75, 2078-2090.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McIntosh, A.R. and Townsend, C.R. (1996) Interactions between fish, grazing invertebrates and algae in a New Zealand stream: a trophic cascade mediated by fish-induced changes in grazer behaviour? Oecologia 108, 174-181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McNamara, J.M. and Houston, A.I. (1994) The effect of a change in foraging options on intake rate and predation rate. Am. Nat. 144, 978-1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Neil, W.E. (1990) Induced vertical migration in copepods as a defence against invertebrate predation. Nature 345, 524-526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nault, L.R., Edwards, L.J. and Styer, W.E. (1973) Aphid alarm pheromones: secretion and reception. Environ. Entomol. 2, 101-105.Google Scholar
  50. Peckarsky, B.L. and McIntosh, A.R. (1998) Fitness and community consequences of avoiding multiple predators. Oecologia 113, 565-576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rauner, Y.L. (1977) Heat Balance of the Plant Cover. Amerind Publishing Company, New Delhi. 219 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Ritchie, M.E. and Tilman, D. (1992) Interspecific competition among grasshoppers and their effect on plant abundance in experimental fields. Oecologia 89, 524-532.Google Scholar
  53. Ritchie, M.E. and Tilman, D. (1993) Predictions of species interactions from consumer-resource theory: experimental tests with grasshopper and plants. Oecologia 94, 516-527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ritchie, M.E. (1996) Interaction of temperature and resources in population dynamics: an experimental test of theory. In R.B. Floyd, A.W. Shepard and E.G. Debarro (eds) Frontiers of Population Ecology. CSIRO Press, Melbourne, pp. 79-92.Google Scholar
  55. Rothley, K.D., Schmitz, O.J. and Cohon, J.L. (1997) Foraging to balance conflicting demands: novel insights from grasshoppers under predation risk. Behav. Ecol. 8, 551-559.Google Scholar
  56. Schultz, J.C. (1981) Adaptive changes in antipredator behavior of a grasshopper during development. Evolution 35, 175-179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schmitz, O.J. (1998) Direct and indirect effects of predation and predation risk in old-field interaction webs. Am. Nat. 151, 327-342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Schmitz, O.J., Beckerman, A.P. and O'Brien, K.M. (1997) Behaviorally mediated trophic cascades: effects of predation risk on food web interactions. Ecology 78, 1388-1399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Sih, A. (1982) Foraging strategies and the avoidance of predation by an aquatic insect, Notonecta hoffmanni. Ecology 63, 786-796.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Soluk, D.A. (1993) Multiple predator effects: predicting combined functional response of stream fish and invertebrate predators. Ecology 74, 219-225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Strong, D.R., Lawton, J.H. and Southwood, R. (1984) Insects on plants: community patterns and mechanisms. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, 313 pp.Google Scholar
  62. Terry, R.A. and Tilley, J.M.A. (1964) The digestibility of the leaves and stems of perennial ryegrass, cocksfoot, timothy, tall fescue, lucerne and sainfoin as measured by an in vitro process. J. Br. Grassland Soc. 19, 363-372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tikkanen, P., Muotka, T. and Huhta, A. (1994) Predator detection and avoidance in lotic mayfly nymphs of different size. Oecologia 99, 252-259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tilman, D. (1987) Secondary succession and the pattern of plant dominance along experimental nitrogen gradients. Ecol. Monogr. 57, 189-214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Werger, M.J.A. and Hirose, T. (1991) Leaf nitrogen distribution and whole canopy photosynthetic carbon gain in herbaceous stands. Vegetatio 97, 11-20.Google Scholar
  66. Werner, E.E. and Hall, D.J. (1976) Niche shifts in sunfishes: experimental evidence and significance. Science 191, 404-406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Whitman, D.W. (1988) Function and evolution of thermoregulation in the desert grasshopper Taeniopoda eques. Anim. Ecol. 57, 369-383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Willott, S.J. and Hassall, M. (1998) Life-history responses of British grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to temperature change. Functional Ecol. 12, 232-241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wisenden, B.D., Chivers, D.P. and Smith, R.J.F. (1997) Learned recognition of predation risk by Enallagmadamselfly larvae (Odonata, Zygoptera) on the basis of chemical cues. J. Chem. Ecol. 23, 137-151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wootton, J.T. (1993) Indirect effects and habitat use in an intertidal community: interaction chains and interaction modifications. Am. Nat. 141, 71-89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wovcha, D.S., Delaney, B.C. and Nordquist, G.E. (1995) Minnesota's St. Croix River Valley and Anoka Sandplain: A Guide to Native Habitats. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 234 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • William C. Pitt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, and Ecology CenterUtah State UniversityLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations