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Experimental Shock Chemistry of Aqueous Amino Acid Solutions and the Cometary Delivery of Prebiotic Compounds

  • Jennifer G. Blank
  • Gregory H. Miller
  • Michael J. Ahrens
  • Randall E. Winans
Article

Abstract

A series of shock experiments were conducted to assess thefeasibility of the delivery of organic compounds to theEarth via cometary impacts. Aqueous solutions containingnear-saturation levels of amino acids (lysine, norvaline,aminobutyric acid, proline, and phenylalanine) were sealedinside stainless steel capsules and shocked by ballisticimpact with a steel projectile plate accelerated along a12-m-long gun barrel to velocities of 0.5–1.9 km sec-1. Pressure-temperature-time histories of the shocked fluidswere calculated using 1D hydrodynamical simulations. Maximum conditions experienced by the solutions lasted0.85–2.7 μs and ranged from 5.1–21 GPa and 412–870 K. Recovered sample capsules were milled open and liquid wasextracted. Samples were analyzed using high performanceliquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). In all experiments, a large fraction of the amino acidssurvived. We observed differences in kinetic behavior andthe degree of survivability among the amino acids. Aminobutyricacid appeared to be the least reactive, and phenylalanine appeared to be the most reactive of the amino acids. The impact process resulted in the formation of peptide bonds; new compounds included amino acid dimers and cyclic diketopiperazines. In our experiments, and in certain naturally occurring impacts, pressure has a greater influencethan temperature in determining reaction pathways. Our resultssupport the hypothesis that significant concentrations of organic material could survive a natural impact process.

amino acids comets impact delivery origin of life shock recovery experiments 

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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jennifer G. Blank
    • 1
  • Gregory H. Miller
    • 2
  • Michael J. Ahrens
    • 3
  • Randall E. Winans
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Planetary ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyU.S.A.
  2. 2.Lawrence Berkeley National LaboratoryApplied Numerical Algorithms GroupBerkeleyU.S.A
  3. 3.Chemistry DivisionArgonne National LaboratoryArgonneU.S.A

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