Advances in Contraception

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 337–350 | Cite as

Fine structure of the langur monkey vas deferens and possible role of changes following vasectomy in the success or failure of the vasovasostomy

  • N.K. Lohiya
  • S. Srivastava
  • A.S. Ansari
  • B. Manivannan


Studies on the ultrastructure of the vas deferens have been carried out in control, vasectomized (6 and 24 months) and vasovasostomized (12 months) langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne). Vas deferens epithelium of the control animals depicted four types of cells, viz. the basal cells, principal cells, mitochondria-rich or apical cells and pencil or dark cells. The basal cells were short, cuboidal in nature with prominent nuclei, and contained sparse cytoplasmic organelles. The principal cells were characterized by the presence of nuclei with irregular outline and intranuclear electron-dense granules, well-developed Golgi bodies with prominent secretory vesicles, cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, free ribosome particles, lysosomes and stereocilia in the cytoplasm, suggesting an active secretory role, as well as the absorptive functions of the cells. The mitochondria-rich cells consisted of numerous mitochondria, and other cytoplasmic organelles were sparse. The pencil cells were dark, slightly compressed and situated between the principal cells. Vasectomy resulted in reduction of cytoplasmic volume and vacuolization of the cytoplasm, especially in the Golgi region of the principal cells. Rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were poorly defined. Vasovasostomy showed no appreciable improvement in the configuration of the cytoplasmic organelles. The results suggest that a persistent reduced secretory activity of the cells following vasectomy and vasovasostomy might also be one of the factors responsible for unsuccessful vasovasostomy.


Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Principal Cell Cytoplasmic Organelle Golgi Body Free Ribosome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Belker AM, Thomas Jr AJ, Fuchs EF, Konnak JW, Sharlip ID. Results of 1,469 microsurgical vasectomy reversal by the vasovasostomy study group. J Urol Nurs. 1992;11:93-111.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fuse H, Kimura H, Katyam T. Modified one layer microsurgical vasovasostomy in vasectomized patients. Int J Urol Nephrol. 1995;27:451-6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexander NJ. Vasectomy: Long term effects in the rhesus monkey. J Reprod Fert. 1972;31:399-406.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Flickinger CJ. Alteration in the fine structure of the rat epididymis after vasectomy. Anat Rec. 1972;173:277-300.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Flickinger CJ. Ultrastructure of the rat testis after vasectomy. Anat Rec. 1972;174:477-94.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Flickinger CJ. Fine structure of the rabbit testis after vasectomy. Biol Reprod. 1975;13:61-7.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flickinger CJ. The fate of sperm after vasectomy in the hamster. Anat Rec. 1982;202:231-9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paniagua R, Regdra J, Nistal M, Abaurrea MA. Histological, histochemical and ultrastructural variations along the length of the human vas deferens before and after puberty. Acta Anat. 1981;111:190-203.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wen RQ, Li SQ, Wang CX et al. Analysis of spermatozoa from the proximal vas deferens of vasectomized men. Int J Androl. 1994;17:181-5.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    David GFX, Ramaswami LS. Reproductive system of North Indian Langur (Presbytis entellus entellus Dufresne). J Morphol. 1971;135:99-130.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lohiya NK, Sharma RS, Puri CP, David GFX, Anand Kumar TC. Reproductive exocrine and endocrine profile of female langur monkeys, Presbytis entellus. J Reprod Fert. 1988;82:485-92.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lohiya NK, Sharma RS, Manivannan B, Anand Kumar TC. Reproductive exocrine and endocrine profiles and their seasonality in male langur monkeys (Presbytis entellus entellus). J Med Primatol. 1998;27:15-20.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Indian National Science Academy. Guidelines for Care and Use of Animals in Scientific Research. New Delhi: Vibha Enterprises, 1992.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Silber SJ. Vasectomy and vasectomy reversal: Microsurgical approach. In: Sciarra JJ, Zatuchni GI, Speidel JJ (eds), Reversal of Sterilization. Hagerstown, Maryland: Harper and Row, 1978:34-49.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hayat MA. Principles and Technique of Electron Microscopy. Vol. I. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1970.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hoffer AP. The ultrastructure of the ductus deferens in man. Biol Reprod. 1976;14:425-43.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cohen J, Foster E, Gillenwater JY. Quantitative age related histologic changes in the human vas deferens. Invest Urol. 1979;16:305-6.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Madara JL, Haggit RC, Federman M. Intranuclear inclusions of the human vas deferens. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1978;2:648-50.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McDonald SW. Vasectomy review: Sequelae in the human epididymis and ductus deferens. Clin Anat. 1996;9:337-92.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoffer AP, Greenberg J. The structure of the epididymis, efferent ductules and ductus deferens of the guinea pig: A light microscopic study. Anat Rec. 1978;190:659-78.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martan J, Risley PC, Hruban Z. Holocrine secretory cells of the human epididymis. Fertil Steril. 1994;15:180-7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Niemi M. The fine structure and histochemistry of the epithelial cells of the rat vas deferens. Acta Anat. 1965;60:207-9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rajalakshmi M, Sharma RS, Pal PC, Kapoor MM. Sialic acid levels in spermatozoa and luminal fluid of normal and infertile men. Curr Sci. 1997;73:1012-15.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Friend DS, Farquhar MG. Function of the coated vesicles during protein absorption in the rat vas deferens. J Cell Biol. 1967;35:357-76.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hamilton DW, Cooper TG. Gross histological variation along the length of the rat vas deferens. Anat Rec. 1978;190:795-810.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kennedy SW, Heidger PM. Fine structural studies of the rat vas deferens. Anat Rec. 1979;94:336-42.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hooker RH. Changes in the testis and epididymis of rabbits following long term vasectomy or vasovasostomy: Correlation with the results of vasovasostomy. Biol Reprod. 1980;22:297-306.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ratnakumar BV, Shipstone AC, Setty BS. Effects of vasectomy on the ultrastructure of epididymal epithelium in rhesus monkey. Int J Fertil. 1990;35:180-91.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Alexander NJ. Vasectomy and vasovasostomy in rhesus monkey. The effect of circulating antisperm antibodies on fertility. Fertil Steril. 1977;28:562-9.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Flickinger CJ, Howard SS, Herr JC. Effects of vasectomy on the epididymis. Micros Res Tech. 1995;30:82-100.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shafik A. Electrovasogram in normal and vasectomized men and patients with obstructive azoospermia and absent vas deferens. Arch Androl. 1996;36:67-79.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shafik A. Electrovasography in normal and vasectomized men before and after vasectomy reversal. Int J Androl. 1996;19:33-8.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • N.K. Lohiya
    • 1
  • S. Srivastava
    • 1
  • A.S. Ansari
    • 1
  • B. Manivannan
    • 1
  1. 1.Reproductive Physiology Section, Department of ZoologyUniversity of RajasthanJaipurIndia

Personalised recommendations