New Forests

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 69–93 | Cite as

Secondary forest regeneration under fast-growing forest plantations on degraded Imperata cylindrica grasslands

  • Riikka Otsamo


Natural regeneration of native tree species in the understoreys of fast-growing plantation tree species (Acacia mangium, Gmelina arborea and Paraserianthes falcataria) and in adjacent natural riverine forest and non-cultivated grassland areas were studied on Imperata cylindrica grassland sites in Riam Kiwa plantation area, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Seedling and sapling densities as well as species composition and richness were assessed in a total of 35 ha by a systematic line plot survey.

Floristic composition was similar in A. mangium and P. falcataria stands which differed distinctly from G. arborea stands and Imperata grassland area. Riverine forest was characterized by later successional species. In A. mangium and P. falcataria stands, a total of 63 species from 24 families were recorded. Seedling stock consisted merely of pioneer and secondary species, but also several fairly commonly occurring primary forest species. Euphorbiaceae was the most common family representing 42% of sapling and 29% of seedling densities. The most abundant regeneration occurred in A. mangium stands (4,706 seedling/sapling ha-1), followed by P. falcataria (2,242 ha-1) and G. arborea (554 ha-1). Seedling recruitment was significantly lower in plots dominated by grass vegetation than those dominated by no vegetation or shrub vegetation. Breast height diameter and basal area of canopy trees as well as coverage and height of ground vegetation did not explain seedling/sapling density. Results show that plantation establishment with suitable fast-growing tree species facilitates recruitment of a variety of native tree species. This provides potential for rapid restoration of forest ecosystem and for further development of the mixed stands of fast-growing exotics and naturally regenerated native species.

Acacia mangium Alang-alang biodiversity Gmelina arborea Indonesia natural regeneration Paraserianthes falcataria Kalimantan reforestation restoration 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anon. 1997. Studi pengembangan jenis lokal sebagai tanaman alternatif HTI PT. Finnantara Intiga,Wilayah Sanggau. Laporan I: Inventarisasi jenis vegetasi berkayu pada lahan bekas perladangan di daerah Jeropet, Kabupaten Sanggau. PT. Finnantara Intiga, Pontianak, Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. 89 p.Google Scholar
  2. Appanah, S. and Weinland, G. 1993. Planting quality timber trees in Peninsular Malaysia-a review. Malayan Forest Record No. 38. Forest Research Institute Malaysia and German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 221 p.Google Scholar
  3. Ashton, P.M.S., Gamage, S., Gunatilleke, I.A.U.N. and Gunatilleke, C.V.C. 1997. Restoration of a Sri Lankan rainforest: using Caribbean pine Pinus caribaea as a nurse for establishing late-successional tree species. J. Appl. Ecol. 34: 915–925.Google Scholar
  4. Awang, K. and Taylor, D. (Eds.) 1993. Acacia mangium. Growing and utilization. MPTS Monograph Series No. 3. Winrock International and FAO. Bangkok, Thailand. 280 p.Google Scholar
  5. Brook, R.M. 1989. Review of literature on Imperata cylindrica (L.) Raeuschel with particular reference to South East Asia. Trop. Pest Manage. 35(1): 12–25.Google Scholar
  6. de Jong, W. 1999. Income generation through rehabilitation of Imperata grasslands: production of Vitex pubescens as a source of charcoal, pp. 175-184. In: Roshetko, J.M. and Evans, D.E. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Workshop on Domestication of Agroforestry Trees in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 4-7 November, 1997. University of Gadjah Mada and ICRAF.Google Scholar
  7. Dela Cruz, R.E. 1986. Constraints and strategies for the regeneration of Imperata grasslands. In: Forest regeneration in Southeast Asia, pp. 23-34. In: Proceedings of the symposium in Bogor, Indonesia, 9-11 May, 1984. Biotrop Special Publication No. 25. Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  8. Eussen, J.H.H. and Wirjahardja, S. 1973. Studies of an alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) vegetation. Biotrop Bulletin No. 6. Bogor, Indonesia. 24 p.Google Scholar
  9. FAO-UNESCO 1979. Soil Map of the World. Volume X. Southeast Asia. UNESCO, Place de Fontenoy, Paris.Google Scholar
  10. Fiala, B. 1996. Ants benefit pioneer trees: the genus Macaranga as an example of antplant associations in dpterocarp forest ecosystems, pp. 102-123. In: Schulte, A. and Schöne, D. (Eds.) Dipterocarp Forest Ecosystems: Towards Sustainable Management. World Scientific, Singapore.Google Scholar
  11. Fimbel, R.A. and Fimbel, C.C. 1996. The role of exotic conifer plantations in rehabilitating degraded tropical forest lands: A case study from the Kibale Forest in Uganda. For. Ecol. Manage. 81: 215–226.Google Scholar
  12. Fisher, R.F. 1995. Amelioration of degraded rain forest soils by plantations of native trees. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59: 544–549.Google Scholar
  13. Garrity, D.P., Soekardi, M., van Noordwijk, M., Dela Cruz, R., Pathak, P.S., Gunasena, H.P.M., van So, N., Huijun, G. and Majid, N.M. 1997. The Imperata grasslands of tropical Asia: area, distribution, and typology. Agroforestry Systems 35: 3–29.Google Scholar
  14. Greaves, A. 1981. Gmelina arborea. Commonwealth Forestry Bureau. Forestry Abstracts 42(6): 237–258.Google Scholar
  15. Haggar, J., Wightman, K. and Fisher, R. 1997. The potential of plantations to foster woody regeneration within a deforested landscape in lowland Costa Rica. For. Ecol. Manage. 99: 55–64.Google Scholar
  16. ITTO (International Tropical Timber Organization) 1993. ITTO guidelines for the establishment and sustainable management of planted tropical forests. ITTO Policy Development Series 4, Yokohoma, Japan. 38 p.Google Scholar
  17. Jusop, S. and Hanif, A.H.M. 1992. Characterization and classification of soils at MPTS trial sites in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines and Malaysia. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia (Malaysian Agricultural University) and Winrock International. 100 p.Google Scholar
  18. Keenan, R., Lamb, D., Woldring, O., Irvine, T. and Jensen, R. 1997. Restoration of plant biodiversity beneath tropical tree plantations in Northern Australia. For. Ecol. Manage. 99: 117–131.Google Scholar
  19. Kessler, P.J.A. and Sidiyasa, K. 1994. Trees of the Balikpapan-Samarinda area, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Tropenbos Series 7. Stichting Tropenbos. Krips Repro bv, Meppel. 446 p.Google Scholar
  20. Kuusipalo, J., Ådjers, G., Jafarsidik, Y, Otsamo, A., Tuomela, K. and Vuokko, R. 1995. Restoration of natural vegetation in degraded Imperata cylindrica grasslands: understorey development in forest plantations. J. Veg. Sci. 6: 205–210.Google Scholar
  21. Laurila, R. 1996. Utilization possibilities of pioneer tree species in logged-over rain forest. M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Forest Resource and Management, University of Helsinki, Finland. p. 38.Google Scholar
  22. Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and Wong, W.C. (Eds.). 1995. Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(2). PROSEA. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 655 p.Google Scholar
  23. Lugo, A.E. 1997. The apparent paradox of reestablishing species richness on degraded lands with tree monocultures. For. Ecol. Manage. 99: 9–19.Google Scholar
  24. Lugo, A.E., Parrotta, J.A. and Brown, S. 1993. Loss in species caused by tropical deforestation and their recovery through management. Ambio 22(2-3): 106–109.Google Scholar
  25. MacKinnon, K., Hatta, G., Halim, H. and Mangalik, A. 1996. The Ecology of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. The Ecology of Indonesia Series, Volume III. Dalhousie University, Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd, Republic of Singapore. 802 p.Google Scholar
  26. Nambiar, E.K.S. 1996. Sustained productivity of forests is a continuing challenge to soil science. Soil Sci. Am. J. 60: 1629–1642.Google Scholar
  27. Ohta, S. 1990. Initial soil changes associated with afforestation with Acacia auriculiformis and Pinus kesiya on denuded grasslands of the Pantabangan area, Central Luzon, the Philippines. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 36(4): 633–643.Google Scholar
  28. Otsamo, A., Ådjers, G., Hadi, T.S., Kuusipalo, J., Tuomela K. and Vuokko, R. 1995. Effect of site preparation and initial fertilization on the establishment and growth of four plantation tree species used in reforestation of Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. dominated grasslands. For. Ecol. Management 73: 271–277.Google Scholar
  29. Otsamo, A., Ådjers, G., Hadi, T.S., Kuusipalo, J. and Vuokko, R. 1997. Evaluation of reforestation potential of 83 tree species planted on Imperata cylindrica dominated grassland. A case study from South Kalimantan, Indonesia. New Forests 14: 127–143.Google Scholar
  30. Otsamo, R. 1998. Effect of nurse tree species on early growth of Anisoptera marginata Korth. (Dipterocarpaceae) on an Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. grassland site in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. For. Ecol. Management 105: 303–311.Google Scholar
  31. Parrotta, J.A. 1993. Secondary forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands-the role of plantations as “foster ecosystems”, pp. 63-73. In: Lieth, H. and Lohmann, M. (Eds.) Restoration of Tropical Forest Ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  32. Parrotta, J.A. 1995. Influence of overstory composition on understory colonization by native species in plantations on a degraded tropical site. J. Veg. Sci. 6: 627–636.Google Scholar
  33. Parrotta, J.A., Turnbull, J.W. and Jones, N. 1997. Catalyzing native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands. For. Ecol. Management 99: 1–7.Google Scholar
  34. Potter, L. 1987. Degradation, innovation and social welfare in the Riam Kiwa valley, Kalimantan, Indonesia, pp. 164-176. In: Blaikie, P. and Brookfield, H. (Eds.) Land Decradation and Society. Methuen, London, UK.Google Scholar
  35. Powers, J.S., Haggar, J.P. and Fisher, R.F. 1997. The effect of overstory composition on understory woody regeneration and species richness in 7-year-old plantations in Costa Rica. For. Ecol. Management 99: 43–54.Google Scholar
  36. Prabhu, R., Colfer, C.J.P., Venkateswarlu, P., Tan, L.C., Soekmadi, R. and Wollenberg, L. 1996. Testing criteria and indicators for the sustainable management of forests: Phase I. Final Report. CIFOR. 217 p.Google Scholar
  37. Primack, R.B. and Lee, H.S. 1991. Population dynamics of pioneer (Macaranga) trees and understorey (Mallotus) trees (Euphorbiaceae) in primary and selectively logged Bornean rain forests. J. Trop. Ecol. 7: 439–458.Google Scholar
  38. Simpson, J.A. 1992. An assessment of the soils and nutrient status of trial plantations in the Indonesian-Finland Project at Riam Kiwa, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Reforestation and Tropical Forest Management Project Technical Report No. 25. FINNIDA in cooperation with the Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia. 36+71 p.Google Scholar
  39. Soerianegara, I. 1980. The alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.) problem in forestry, pp. 237-242. In: Proceedings of Biotrop Workshop on Alang-alang, Bogor, Indonesia, 27-29 July 1976. Biotrop Special Publication No. 5. Bogor, Indonesia.Google Scholar
  40. Soerianegara, I. and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Eds.) 1994. Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5: (1) Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. PSOSEA. Bogor, Indonesia. 610 p.Google Scholar
  41. Stace, H.C.T., Hubbles, G.D., Brewer, R., Northcote, K.H., Sleeman, J.R., Mulchay, M.J. and Hallsworth, E.G. 1968. A Handbook of Australian Soils. Rellim Tech. Publications, Glenside, Australia. 435 p.Google Scholar
  42. Sulthoni, A. 1990. Wildlife survey in Riam Kiwa. Technical Report 12/IV. Mechanized nursery and plantation project in South Kalimantan (ATA-267). Ministry of Forestry, Directorate General of Reforestation and Land Rehabilitation, and Enso Forest Development Oy Ltd, Finnish International Development Agency. 50 p.Google Scholar
  43. USDA 1975. Soil Taxonomy. A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys. USDA Soil Survey Staff, Agri. Handbook No. 436. 754 p. 93 Voss, R., Priasukmana, S. and Iriansyah, M. 1988. Soil characteristics under several plantation species in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, pp. 80-84. In: Cole, D.W. and Gessel, S.P. (Eds.) Forest Site Evaluation and Long-term Productivity. University of Washington, Institute of Forest Resources.Google Scholar
  44. Whitmore, T.C., Tantra, I.G.M. and Sutisna, U. 1989. Tree flora of Indonesia. Check list for Kalimantan. Part I. Forest Research and Development Centre, Bogor, Indonesia. 181 p.Google Scholar
  45. Whitmore, T.C., Tantra, I.G.M. and Sutisna, U. 1990. Tree flora of Indonesia. Check list for Kalimantan. Part II. 1. Forest Research and Development Centre, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 182–429.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riikka Otsamo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest Ecology / Tropical Silviculture, University of HelsinkiUniversity of HelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations