Biology and Philosophy

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 327–340 | Cite as

Mind Architecture and Brain Architecture

  • CAMILO J. CELA-CONDE
  • GISÈLE MARTY
Article

Abstract

The use of the computer metaphor has led to the proposal of ’’mind architecture‘‘ (Pylyshyn 1984; Newell 1990) as a model of the organization of the mind. The dualist computational model, however, has, since the earliest days of psychological functionalism, required that the concepts ’’mind architecture‘‘ and ’’brain architecture‘‘ be remote from each other. The development of both connectionism and neurocomputational science, has sought to dispense with this dualism and provide general models of consciousness – a ’’uniform cognitive architecture‘‘ –, which is in general reductionist, but which retains the computer metaphor. This paper examines, in the first place, the concepts of mind architecture and brain architecture, in order to evaluate the syntheses which have recently been offered. It then moves on to show how modifications which have been made to classical functionalist mind architectures, with the aim of making them compatible with brain architectures, are unable to resolve some of the most serious problems of functionalism. Some suggestions are given as to why it is not possible to relate mind structures and brain structures by using neurocomputational approaches, and finally the question is raised of the validity of reductionism in a theory which sets out to unite mind and brain architectures.

mind architecture brain architecture computer metaphor chaos non-linear phenomena reductionism cognitive functionalism neurocomputation PDP knowledge process 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackley, D.H., Hinton, G.E. and Sejnowski, T.J.: 1985, ‘A learning algorithm for Boltzmann machines’, Cognitive Science 9, 147–169.Google Scholar
  2. Barlow, H.: 1990, ‘The mechanical mind’, Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 13, 15–24.Google Scholar
  3. Barnes, D.M.: 1986, ‘From Genes to Cognition’, Science 231, 1066–1068.Google Scholar
  4. Cela-Conde, C.J.: 1994, ‘Teoría neurobiológica de la consciencia’, Psicothema 6, 155–163.Google Scholar
  5. Cela-Conde, C.J. and Marty, G.: 1994, ‘Vida, mente, máquina. Medio siglo de metáforas’, Ludus Vitalis 2, 25–37.Google Scholar
  6. Cela-Conde, C.J. and Marty, G.: 1995, ‘Caos y consciencia’, Psicothema 7, 679–684.Google Scholar
  7. Clark, J.: 1994, ‘Toward a scientific basis for consciousness’, Journal of Consciousness Studies 1, 152–154.Google Scholar
  8. Crick, F. and Koch, C.: 1990, ‘Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness’, Seminars in the Neurosciences 2, 263–275.Google Scholar
  9. Crick, F.: 1994, The Astonishing Hypothesis, Scribner, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
  10. Churchland, P.M.: 1986, ‘Cognitive Neurobiology, A Computational Hypothesis for Laminar Cortex’, Biology and Philosophy 1, 25–51.Google Scholar
  11. Churchland, P.S., Koch, C. and Sejnowski, T.J.: 1990, ‘What Is Computational Neuroscience?’, in E.L. Schwartz (ed.), Computational Neuroscience, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 46–55.Google Scholar
  12. Damasio, A.R.: 1989, ‘The brain binds entities and events by multiregional activation from convergence zones’, Neural Computation 1, 123–132.Google Scholar
  13. Daugman, J.G.: 1990, ‘Brain Metaphor and Brain Theory’, in E.L. Schwartz (ed.), Computational Neuroscience, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 9–18.Google Scholar
  14. Devor, M. and Wall, P.D.: 1981, ‘Effects of peripheral nerve injury on perceptive fields of cells in cat spinal cord’, Journal of Comparative Neurology 199, 227–291.Google Scholar
  15. Ebdon, M.: 1993, ‘Is the Brain Neocortex a Uniform Cognitive Architecture?’, Mind and Language 8, 368–403.Google Scholar
  16. Finkel, L.F., Reeke, G.N. and Edelman, G.M.: 1989, ‘A Population Approach to the Neural Basis of Perceptual Categorization’, in L. Nadel, L.A. Cooper, P. Culicover and R.M. Harnish (eds.), Neural Connections, Mind Computation, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 146–179.Google Scholar
  17. Fischer, R.: 1993, ‘From “transmition of signals” to “self-creation of meaning”. Transformations in the concept of information’, Cybernetica 36, 229–243.Google Scholar
  18. Fischer, R. (in press), ‘On Some Not Yet Fashionable Aspects of Consciousness’, in M.E. Carvallo (ed.), Nature, Cognition and System, vol. III, Kluwer Academic Publ.Google Scholar
  19. Freeman, W.J.: 1993, ‘The Emergence of Chaotic Dynamics as a Basis for Comprehending Intentionality in Experimental Subjects’, in Karl H. Pribram (ed.), Rethinking Neural Networks, Quantum Fields and Biological Data, Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 507–514.Google Scholar
  20. Freeman, W.J. (in press) ‘Three centuries of category errors in brain science, a brief history of neurodynamics in behavioral studies’, Journal of the History of Psychology.Google Scholar
  21. García-Albea, J.E.: 1991, ‘Entrevista con Jerry A. Fodor, Funcionalismo y ciencia cognitiva, lenguaje y pensamiento, modularidad y conexionismo’, Estudios de psicolog 'a 45, 5–31.Google Scholar
  22. Gazzaniga, M.S., Bogen, J.E. and Sperry, R.W.: 1962, ‘Some functional effects of sectioning the brain commissures in man’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 48, 1765–1769.Google Scholar
  23. Georgopoulos, A.P., Schwartz, A.B. and Kettner, R.E.: 1986, ‘Neuronal population coding of movement direction’, Science 233, 1357–1460.Google Scholar
  24. Globus, G.: 1992, ‘Toward a Noncomputational Cognitive Neuroscience’, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 4, 299–310.Google Scholar
  25. Goertzel, B.: 1993, ‘Self-reference and complexity. Component-systems and self-generating systems in biology and cognitive science’, Evolution and Cognition 2, 257–283.Google Scholar
  26. Gray, C.M., Engel, A.K., König, P. and Singer, W.: 1989, ‘Stimulus-dependent neuronal oscillations in cat visual cortex. Receptive field properties and feature dependence’, European Journal of Neurosciences 2, 607–619.Google Scholar
  27. Hameroff, S.: 1994, ‘Quantum Coherence in Microtubules: A Neural Basis for Emergent Consciousness?’, Journal of Consciousness Studies 1, 91–118.Google Scholar
  28. Harnad, S.: 1989, ‘Minds, Machines and Searle’, Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Artificial Intelligence 1, 5–25.Google Scholar
  29. Milner, B. and Petrides, M.: 1984, ‘Behavioural effects of frontal-lobe lesions in man’, Trends in Neurosciences 7, 403–407.Google Scholar
  30. Newell, A.: 1990, Unified Theories of Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  31. Nunn, C.M.H., Clarke, C.J.S. and Blott, B.H.: 1994, ‘Collapse of a Quantum Field may Affect Brain Function’, Journal of Consciousness Studies 1, 127–139.Google Scholar
  32. Penrose, R. and Clark, J.: 1994, ‘Roger Penrose Frs. Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at Oxford University, talks to Jane Clark about his forthcoming book Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness’, Journal of Consciousness Studies 1, 17–24.Google Scholar
  33. Pylyshyn, Z.W.: 1980, ‘Cognition representation and the process-architecture distinction’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 154–169.Google Scholar
  34. Pylyshyn, Z.W.: 1984, Computation and Cognition, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  35. Raichle, M.E.: 1993, ‘The scratchpad of the mind’, Nature 363, 583–584.Google Scholar
  36. Rivière, A.: 1991, Objetos con mente, Alianza Universidad, Madrid.Google Scholar
  37. Searle, J.: 1980, ‘Minds, Brains and Programs’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 417–424.Google Scholar
  38. Skarda, C.A. and Freeman, W.J.: 1987, ‘How brains make chaos in order to make sense of the world’, Behavioral and Brain Science 10, 161–173.Google Scholar
  39. Smolensky, P.: 1988, ‘On the proper treatment of connectionism’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11, 1–23.Google Scholar
  40. Stroll, A.: 1993, ‘That Puzzle We Call the Mind’, Grazer Philosophische Studien 44, 189–210.Google Scholar
  41. Szentágothai, J.: 1968, ‘Structure-Functional Considerations of the Cerebellar Neuron Networks’, Proceedings of the I.E.E.E. 56, 960–968.Google Scholar
  42. Szentágothai, J.: 1969, ‘Architecture of the Brain Cortex’, in Jasper, H.H., Ward, A.A. and Pope, A. (eds.), Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies, Little, Brown and Co., Boston, Mass., pp. 13–28.Google Scholar
  43. Volkow, N.D. and Tancredi, L.R.: 1991, ‘Biological Correlates of Mind activity Studied With PET’, American Journal of Psychiatry 148, 439–443.Google Scholar
  44. Wells, A.: 1993, ‘Parallel Architectures and Mind Computation’, British Journal of Philosophy of Science 44, 531–542.Google Scholar
  45. Zeki, S.: 1993, A Vision of the Brain, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • CAMILO J. CELA-CONDE
    • 1
  • GISÈLE MARTY
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhilosophyUniversidad de las Islas BalearesPalma de MallorcaSpain

Personalised recommendations