Two dioxygenase genes, Ids3 and Ids2, from Hordeum vulgare are involved in the biosynthesis of mugineic acid family phytosiderophores
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A cDNA clone, Ids3 (iron deficiency-specific clone 3), was isolated from an Fe-deficient-root cDNA library of Hordeum vulgare. Ids3 encodes a protein of 339 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 37.7 kDa, and its amino acid sequence shows a high degree of similarity with those of plant and fungal 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. One aspartate and two histidine residues for ferrous Fe binding (Asp-211, His-209, His-265) and arginine and serine residues for 2-oxoglutarate binding (Arg-275, Ser-277) are conserved in the predicted amino acid sequence of Ids3. Ids3 expression was rapidly induced by Fe deficiency, and was suppressed by re-supply of Fe. Among eight graminaceous species tested, Ids3 expression was observed only in Fe-deficient roots of H. vulgare and Secale cereale, which not only secrete 2′-deoxymugineic acid (DMA), but also mugineic acid (MA) and 3-epihydroxymugineic acid (epiHMA, H. vulgare), and 3-hydroxymugineic acid (HMA, S. cereale). The Ids3 gene is encoded on the long arm of chromosome 4H of H. vulgare, which also carries the hydroxylase gene that converts DMA to MA. Moreover, the Ids2 gene, which is the plant dioxygenase with the highest homology to Ids3, is encoded on the long arm of chromosome 7H of H. vulgare, which carries the hydroxylase gene that converts MA to epiHMA. The observed expression patterns of the Ids3 and Ids2 genes strongly suggest that IDS3 is an enzyme that hydroxylates the C-2′ positions of DMA and epiHDMA, while IDS2 hydroxylates the C-3 positions of MA and DMA.
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