Veterinary Research Communications

, Volume 24, Issue 6, pp 389–399 | Cite as

Efficacy of Copper Oxide Needles for the Control of Nematode Parasites in Dairy Goats

  • C. Chartier
  • E. Etter
  • H. Hoste
  • I. Pors
  • C. Koch
  • B. Dellac


The spread of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in dairy goat farms is of a great concern as probably more than 70% of the flocks are involved. As there are very few other anthelmintic options during the lactating period, we have evaluated the efficacy of copper oxide needles (CON, Copinox, Bayer, UK) in both experimental and natural infections in goats. The curative effect of CON (2–4 g) on existing worm burdens was assessed in goats experimentally infected with Teladorsagia circumcincta, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, compared to controls. The preventive effect of CON (4 g) on worm establishment was monitored for 2 months in animals experimentally infected with H. contortus and for 3 months in naturally infected animals on a farm exhibiting predominant infections with T. circumcincta and Oesophagostomum venulosum. In both experimental and natural conditions, the efficacy of CON was nil against Teladorsagia, Trichostrongylus and Oesophagostomum infections. In contrast, the efficacy of CON against Haemonchus was clearly established in reducing the worm burden (75%) as well as in lowering the egg output (37–95%) in relation to the establishment of new infections over several weeks. Copper oxide needles may represent an alternative to conventional anthelmintics in the control of Haemonchus infection in some goat farms.

anthelmintic copper oxide gastrointestinal nematodes goat Haemonchus contortus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bang, K.S., Familton, A.S. and Sykes, A.R., 1990a. Effect of copper oxide wire particle treatment on establishment of major gastro-intestinal nematodes in lambs. Research in Veterinary Science, 49, 132-137Google Scholar
  2. Bang, K.S., Familton, A.S. and Sykes, A.R., 1990b. Effect of ostertagiasis on copper status in sheep: a study involving use of copper oxide wire particles. Research in Veterinary Science, 49, 306-314Google Scholar
  3. Cabaret, J., Baudet, H.M., Devos, J., Hubert, J., Cortet, J. and Sauvé, C., 1995. Studies on multispecific resistance of gastro-intestinal nematodes to benzimidazoles on dairy-goat farms. Veterinary Parasitology, 60, 331-337Google Scholar
  4. Chartier, C. and Hoste, H., 1994. Anthelmintic treatments against digestive-tract nematodes in grazing dairy goats with high or low levels of milk production. Veterinary Research, 25, 450-457Google Scholar
  5. Chartier, C. and Rèche, B., 1992. Gastrointestinal helminths and lungworms of French dairy goats: prevalence and geographical distribution in Poitou-Charentes. Veterinary Research Communications, 16, 327-335Google Scholar
  6. Chartier, C., Pors, I., Hubert, J., Rocheteau, D., Benoit, C. and Bernard, N., 1998. Prevalence of anthelmintic resistant nematodes in sheep and goats in Western France. Small Ruminant Research, 29, 33-41Google Scholar
  7. Coles, G.C. and Roush, R.T., 1992. Slowing the spread of anthelmintic resistant nematodes of sheep and goats in the United Kingdom. Veterinary Record, 130, 505-510Google Scholar
  8. Coop, R.L. and Holmes, P.H., 1996. Nutrition and parasite interaction. International Journal for Parasitology, 26, 951-962Google Scholar
  9. Coop, R.L. and Kyriazakis, I., 1999. Nutrition-parasite interaction. Veterinary Parasitology, 84, 187-204Google Scholar
  10. Dawkins, H.J.S., Windon, R.G. and Eagleson, G.K., 1989. Eosinophil responses in sheep selected for high and low responsiveness to Trichostrongylus colubriformis. International Journal for Parasitology, 19, 199-205Google Scholar
  11. Euzéby, J., 1982. Diagnostic Expérimental des Helminthoses Animales, vol. 2, (Ministère de l'Agriculture, Informations Techniques des Services Vétérinaires, Paris, France)Google Scholar
  12. Euzéby, J., 1983. Evolution de la chimiothérapie anthelminthique chez les ovins. Revue Médecine Vétérinaire, 134, 25-43Google Scholar
  13. Familton, A.S. and Harrison, T.J., 1992. Copper Supplementation of Sheep, Goats and Deer–Effect, Duration and Toxicity, (Veterinary Continuing Education Publication 145; Massey University, New Zealand), 61-69Google Scholar
  14. Familton, A.S., McAnulty, R.W., Harrison, T.J. and Reid, P.R., 1997. The anthelmintic efficacy of reduced dose copper oxide wire particles in sheep and deer. 16th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology, Sun City, South Africa, no. 102, 29Google Scholar
  15. Graber, M. and Perrotin, C., 1983. Helminthes et Helminthoses des Ruminants Domestiques d'Afrique Tropicale, (Le Point Vétérinaire, Maisons-Alfort, France)Google Scholar
  16. Gevrey, J., Takashio, M. and Euzeby, J., 1964. Identification des strongles digestifs des ruminants par les caractères de diagnose de leurs larves infestantes. Bulletin de la Sociétédes Sciences Vétérinaires et de Médecine Comparée de Lyon, 66, 133-147Google Scholar
  17. Hoste, H. and Chartier, C., 1993. Comparison of the effects on milk production of concurrent infection with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in high-and low-producing dairy goats. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 54, 1886-1893Google Scholar
  18. Inglis, D.M., Gilmour, D.M. and Murray, I.S., 1986. A farm investigation into swayback in a herd of goats and the results of administration of copper needles. Veterinary Record, 118, 657-660Google Scholar
  19. Judson, G.J., Brown, T.H., Gray, D., Dewey, D.W., Edwards, J.B. and McFarlane, J.D., 1982. Oxidised copper wire particles for copper therapy in sheep. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 33, 1073-1083Google Scholar
  20. Kerboeuf, D. and Hubert, J., 1985. Benzimidazole resistance in field strains of nematodes from goats in France. Veterinary Record, 116, 133Google Scholar
  21. Kessler, J., 1991. Mineral nutrition of goats. In: Goat Nutrition, (Morand-Fehr, Pudoc Wageningen), 104-119Google Scholar
  22. Lamand, M., 1972. Diagnostic des carences en oligo-éléments chez l'animal. Annales de Nutrition Animale, 26, B379-B410Google Scholar
  23. Pouliquen, H. and Douart, A., 1998. Intoxication par le cuivre. Le Point Vétérinaire, 29, 1239-1245Google Scholar
  24. Raynaud, J.P., 1970. Etude de l'efficacitéd'une technique de coproscopie quantitative pour le diagnostic de routine et le contrôle des infestations parasitaires des bovins, ovins, équins et porcins. Annales de Parasitologie Humaine et Comparée, 45, 321-342Google Scholar
  25. Suttle, N.F. and Jones, D.G., 1989. Recent developments in trace element metabolism and function: trace elements, disease resistance and immune responsiveness in ruminants. Journal of Nutrition, 119, 1055-1061Google Scholar
  26. Van Houtert, M.F.J. and Sykes, A.R., 1996. Implications of nutrition for the ability of ruminants to withstand gastrointestinal nematode infections. International Journal for Parasitology, 26, 1151-1168Google Scholar
  27. Waller, P.J., 1997. Anthelmintic resistance. Veterinary Parasitology, 72, 391-412Google Scholar
  28. Waller, P.J., 1999. International approaches to the concept of integrated control of nematode parasites of livestock. International Journal for Parasitology, 29, 155-164Google Scholar
  29. Williams, J.C., 1997. Anthelmintic treatment strategies: current status and future. Veterinary Parasitology, 72, 461-477Google Scholar
  30. Zervas, G., Nikolaou, E. and Mantzios, A., 1990. Comparative study of chronic copper poisoning in lambs and young goats. Animal Production, 50, 497-506Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Chartier
    • 1
  • E. Etter
    • 1
  • H. Hoste
    • 2
  • I. Pors
    • 1
  • C. Koch
    • 3
  • B. Dellac
    • 4
  1. 1.AFSSA Niort, Laboratoire de recherches caprinesNiort CedexFrance
  2. 2.Unité associée INRA-ENVTEcole Nationale VétérinaireToulouse CedexFrance
  3. 3.INRA-Tours, Station de Pathologie Aviaire et de ParasitologieMonnaieFrance
  4. 4.Bayer-Pharma, Division Santé AnimalePuteaux CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations