, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 225–257 | Cite as

Soil-air exchange of nitric oxide: An overview of processes, environmental factors, and modeling studies

  • Jörg Ludwig
  • Franz X. Meixner
  • Bernhard Vogel
  • Jochen Förstner


Terrestrial ecosystems with their main elements soil and plants may act, in principle, as both source and sink for atmospheric nitric oxide (NO). The net exchange between ecosystems and the atmosphere, however, is globally dominated by biogenic emissions of NO from soils. Consequently the soil–air exchange of NO is the focus of the following overview. Particular emphasis is placed on the major processes that are responsible for NO production in soils (nitrification, denitrification) and their regulation by environmental factors (nitrogen availability, soil water content, soil temperature, ambient NO concentration). It is shown that interactions of these factors are a major reason for the broad range that exists in published data on NO fluxes. This variability makes it difficult to predict the magnitude of NO fluxes on relevant spatial and temporal scales. To overcome the problem various generalization procedures for scaling up in space and time have been developed, and the potential and limitations of the different approaches is discussed.

biogenic NO emission influencing factors land-use modeling upscaling 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jörg Ludwig
    • 1
  • Franz X. Meixner
    • 2
  • Bernhard Vogel
    • 3
  • Jochen Förstner
    • 3
  1. 1.Abteilung BiogeochemieMax Planck Institut für ChemieMainzGermany
  2. 2.Abteilung BiogeochemieMax Planck Institut für ChemieMainzGermany (author for correspondence, fax:
  3. 3.Institut für Meteorologie und KlimaforschungForschungszentrum Karlsruhe/Univ. KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany

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