Pilot-scale culture of adventitious roots of ginseng in a bioreactor system
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A pilot-scale culture of multiple adventitious roots of ginseng was established using a balloon-type bubble bioreactor. Adventitious roots (2 cm) induced from callus were cultured in plastic Petri dishes having 20 ml of solid Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) medium containing 3% sucrose, 0.15% gelrite, and 24.6 μM indole-3-butric acid. An average of 29 secondary multiple adventitious roots were produced after 4 weeks of culture. These secondary roots were elongated on the same medium, reaching a length of 5 cm after 6 weeks of culture. A time course study revealed that maximum yields in 5-l and 20-l bioreactors were approximately 500 g and 2.2 kg at day 42 with 60 g and 240 g inoculations, respectively. Cutting twice during the culture increased the total amount of biomass produced. The root biomass in a 20-l balloon-type bubble bioreactor was 2.8 kg at harvest with 240 g of inoculum after 8 weeks of culture. The total saponin content obtained from small-scale and pilot-scale balloon type bubble bioreactors was around 1% based on dry weight. Inoculation of 500 g fresh weight of multiple adventitious roots into a 500 l balloon-type bubble bioreactor with cutting at 4 and 6 weeks after inoculation produced approximately 74.8 kg of multiple roots. The ginsengnoside profiles of these multiple adventitious roots were similar to profiles of field-grown ginseng roots when analyzed by HPLC.
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