Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 261–270 | Cite as

Grain filling pattern and cytokinin content in the grains and roots of rice plants

  • Jianchang Yang
  • Shaobing Peng
  • Romeo M. Visperas
  • Arnel L. Sanico
  • Qingsen Zhu
  • Shiliang Gu
Article

Abstract

Grain filling patterns and their relationships withzeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid(IAA) and gibberellin (GA) contents in the grains androots during grain development were examined in sixrice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes grown in thefield and in water culture. Three grain fillingpatterns based on the filling rate of superior andinferior spikelets were observed, i.e., fastsynchronous: all spikelets started filling early andfast at the early filling stage; slowsynchronous: all spikelets filled slowly at the earlyfilling stage and reached the maximum filling ratelate; and asynchronous: superior spikeletsstarted filling and reached the maximum filling ratemuch earlier than the inferior ones. The order ofgrain filling percentage in the three types of grainfilling patterns was: fast synchronous >asynchronous > slow synchronous. Changes in Z + ZRcontents in the superior and inferior spikelets wereassociated with the grain filling patterns. Grainfilling percentage was significantly correlated withZ + ZR contents in the grains and roots at the earlyand middle grain filling stages. IAA and GA(GA1 + GA3 + GA4)contents in the grains and roots were notsignificantly correlated with grain fillingpercentage. The results suggest that cytokinins in thegrains and roots during the early phase of graindevelopment play an important role in regulating grainfilling pattern and consequently influence grainfilling percentage.

cytokinins gibberellins (GA) grain filling pattern grain filling percentage indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) rice (Oryza sativa L.) zeatin zeatin riboside 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Awan I and Alizai HK (1989) Effect of plant growth regulators on ripening, grain development and rice quality. International Rice Research Newsletter 14(3): 30-31Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bai XF, Cai YP and Nie F (1989) Relationship between abscisic acid and grain filling of rice and wheat. Plant Physiol Communication 3: 40-41Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhardwaj SN and Verma V (1985) Hormonal regulation of assimilate translocation during grain growth in wheat. Indian J Exp Biol 23: 719-721Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bollmark M, Kubat B and Eliasson L (1988) Variations in endogenous cytokinin content during adventitious root formation in pea cuttings. J Plant Physiol 132: 262-265Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cheikh N, Jones RJ and Gengeenbach BG (1993) The effect of heat stress on carbohydrate metabolism from seed coats of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Plant Physiol 80: 635-637Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Davies PJ (1987) The plant hormones: Their nature, occurrence, and functions. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant Hormones and Their Role in Plant Growth and Development. Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp 1-11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dietrich JT, Kaminek M, Blevins DG, Reinbott TM and Morris RO (1995) Changes in cytokinins and cytokinin oxidase activity in developing maize kernels and the effects of exogenous cytokinin on kernel development. Plant Physiol Biochem 33(3): 327-336Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Doerffling K (1977) Storage processes: The role of hormones. Z Pflanzenernaehr Bodenkd 140(1): 3-14Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    He Z (1993) Guidance to Experiment on Chemical Control in Crop Plants. Beijing: Beijing Agricultural University Publisher, pp 60-68Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ho LC, Grange RI and Shaw AF (1989) Source-sink regulation. In: Baker DA and Milburm JA (eds) Transport of Photoassimilates. New York: Longman Scientific Technical, pp 306-334Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Iwasaki Y, Mae T, Makino A, Ohira K and Ojima K (1992) Nitrogen accumulation in the inferior spikelet of rice ear during ripening. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 38(3): 517-525Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khush GS and Peng S (1996) Breaking the yield frontier of rice. In: Reynolds MP, Rajaram S and McNab A (eds) Increasing Yield Potential in Wheat: Breaking the Barriers. Mexico: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, pp 36-51Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lur HS and Setter TL (1993) Role of auxin in maize endosperm development: Timing of nuclear DNA endoreduplication, zein expression, and cytokinin. Plant Physiol 103: 273-280Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mae T and Ohira K (1981) The remobilization of nitrogen related to leaf growth and senescence in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Cell Physiol 22: 1067-1074Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Michael G and Seiler-Kelbitsch H (1972) Cytokinin content and kernel size of barley grains as affected by environmental and genetic factors. Crop Science 12: 162-165Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morris RD, Blevins DG, Dietrich JT, Durly RC, Gelvin SB, Gray J, Hommes NG, Kaminek M, Mathews LJ, Meilan R, Reinbott TM and Sagavendra-Soto L (1993) Cytokinins in plant pathogenic bacteria and developing cereal grains. Aust J Plant Physiol 20: 621-637Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peng S, Khush GS and Cassman KG (1994) Evaluation of a new plant ideotype for increased yield potential. In: KG Cassman (ed) Breaking the Yield Barrier: Proc. of a Workshop on Rice Yield Potential in Favorable Environments. Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, pp 5-20Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Saha S, Nagar PK and Sircar PK (1986) Cytokinin concentration gradient in the developing grains and upper leaves of rice (Oryza sativa) during grain filling. Can J Bot 64: 2068-2072Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schreiber BMN (1991) The role of cytokinins in maize kernel development. Dissertation-Abstracts-International.-B.-Sciences and Engineering 51: 9, 4141B-4142BGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Seth AK and Waering PE (1967) Hormone-directed transport of metabolites and its possible role in plant senescence. J Exp Bot 18: 65-77Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Silverman FP, Assiamah AA and Bush DS (1998) Membrane transport and cytokinin action in root hairs of Medicago sativa. Planta 205: 23-31Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singh G and Gerung SB (1982) Hormonal role in the problem of sterility in Oryza sativa. Plant Physiol Biochem 9: 22-23Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Torry JG (1976) Root hormones and plant growth. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 27: 435-459Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Van Staden, J and Davey JE (1979) The synthesis, transport and metabolism of endogenous cytokinins. Plant Cell Environ 2: 93-106Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang J, Wang S, Zhao D and Ni J (1996) Study on regulation of development of maize kernels. III. The approach to chemical regulation under conditions of tissue culture. Acta Agronomica Sinica 22(2): 208-213Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Z, Yang J, Zhu Q, Zhang Z, Lang Y and Wang X (1998) Reasons for poor grain plumpness in intersubspecific hybrid rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica 24(6): 782-787Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Weiler EW, Jordan PS and Conrad W (1981) Levels of indole-3-acetic acid in intact and decapitated coleoptiles as determined by a specific and highly sensitive solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. Planta 153: 561-571Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wheeler AM (1972) Changes in growth substances during growth of wheat grains. Ann Appl Biol 72: 327-334Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wu S, Chen W and Zhou X (1988) Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for endogenous plant hormones. Plant Physiol Communication (China) 5: 53-57Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yang J, Wang Z, Zhu Q and Lang Y (1999) Regulation of ABA and GA to rice grain-filling. Acta Agronomica Sinica 25(3): 341-348Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yoshida R (1987) Effects of zeatin and abscisic acid on grain ripening in rice. In: Proc. Plant Growth Regulator Society of America. Nebraska: Lincoln, pp 91-96Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhang J, He Z and Wu Y (1991) Establishment of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for zeatin and zeatin riboside. J Beijing Agric Univ (China) 17(suppl): 145-151Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhang Z, Wang Z, Zhu Q and Yang J (1998) Source-sink characteristics and their relations to the proliferation of endosperm cells and grain filling in rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica 24(1): 21-27Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhu Q, Cao X, and Luo Y (1988) Growth analysis on the process of grain filling in rice. Acta Agronomica Sinica 14(3): 182-193Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhu Q, Zhang Z, Yang J, Cao X, Lang Y and Wang Z (1997) Source-sink characteristics related to the yield in intersubspecific hybrid rice. Scientica Agricultura Sinica 30: 52-59Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianchang Yang
    • 1
  • Shaobing Peng
    • 2
  • Romeo M. Visperas
    • 3
  • Arnel L. Sanico
    • 3
  • Qingsen Zhu
    • 1
  • Shiliang Gu
    • 1
  1. 1.Yangzhou University, YangzhouJiangsuChina
  2. 2.Agronomy, Plant Physiology and Agroecology DivisionInternational Rice Research InstituteMakati CityPhilippines
  3. 3.Agronomy, Plant Physiology and Agroecology DivisionInternational Rice Research InstituteMakati CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations