Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 189–199 | Cite as

Yield of plantain alley cropped with Leucaena leucocephala and Flemingia macrophylla in Kumasi, Ghana

Article

Abstract

The decline in yield of plantain has partly been attributed to inadequate soil moisture and pests, particularly nematodes. The objectives of the study therefore were to determine the effect of mulch from Leucaena leucocephala and Flemingia macrophylla (Willd.) Merr. grown as hedgerows on (i) soil moisture and temperature (ii) growth and yield of plantain and (iii) pathogenic nematode populations. The study was conducted from 1991 to 1994 in Kumasi, Ghana. Treatments comprised of leguminous plants, L. leucocephala and F. macrophylla, and a control (no leguminous plants), arranged in a randomised complete block design with four replications. The leguminous plants were planted in 1991 while the plantain was planted in 1992. Results indicated that the highest biomass yield was produced by F. macrophylla. Mulching with prunings of F. macrophylla resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher retention of soil moisture and lower soil temperatures than mulching with prunings of L. leucocephala. Growth of plantain determined by plant height, leaf production, pseudostem girth and yield were significantly greater in F. macrophylla mulched plots than L. leucocephala treatment and control plots where no mulch was applied. Plant parasitic nematodes isolated were Meloidogyne spp., Pratylenchus spp., Paratylenchus spp., Helicotylenchus spp., and Rotylenchus spp. Three years after planting of hedgerows, significantly (P < 0.05) higher populations of Meloidogyne spp. (367 per 100 g soil), Paratylenchus spp. (92 per 100 g soil), Helicotylenchus spp. (8 per 100 g soil), and Rotylenchus spp. (308 per 100 g soil) were associated with L. leucocephala hedgerow than with Flemingia macrophylla hedgerow (42.0, 83.0 per 100 g soil) and the control (74.50, 41.0 per 100 g soil). F. macrophylla has qualities that suppress nematode populations. The results clearly indicated the superiority of Flemingia macrophylla over Leucaena leucocephala as mulch for plantain production.

hedgerow prunings pathogenic nematodes soil moisture soil temperature 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1970) Official Methods of Analysis Ed. 11. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. Bhattacharyya RK and Rao VNM (1984) Effect of soil covers and moisture regimes on nematode population in soil and root of banana. Journal of Research, Assam Agric Univ 5(2): 206–209Google Scholar
  3. Bhattacharyya RK and Rao VNM (1985) Influence of meteorological parameters on the cropping of banana grown under soil covers and soil moisture regimes. Banana Newsletter No. 8: 7–8Google Scholar
  4. Budelman A (1989b) The performance of selected leaf mulches in temperature reduction and moisture conservation in the upper soil stratum. Agrofor Syst 8: 53–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chirwa PW, Nair PKR and Nkedi-kizza P (1994a) Pattern of soil moisture depletion in alleycropping under semi-arid conditions in Zambia. Agrofor Sys 26: 89–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Christie JR (1959) Plant Nematodes. Their Bionomics and Control. Print. H & W.B Drew Company, Florida, USA. 407 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Dadzie BK and Wainwright H (1995) Plantain utilization in Ghana. Trop Sci 35: 405–410Google Scholar
  8. Daulton RAC and Curtis RF (1963) The effect of Tagetes spp. on Meloidogyne javanica in South Rhodesia. Nematologica 9: 357–362Google Scholar
  9. Gowen S (1991) Yield losses caused by nematodes on different banana varieties and some management techniques appropriate for farmers in Africa. In: Gold CS and Gemmil B (eds) Biological and Integrated Control of Highland Banana and Plantain Pests and Diseases, pp 199–208. Proceedings of a research co-ordination meeting, 12–14 Nov., 1991Google Scholar
  10. Hauser S (1993b) Effect of Acioa barterii, Cassia siamea, Flemingia macrophylla and Gmelina arborea leaves on germination and early development of maize and cassava. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 45: 263–273Google Scholar
  11. Kang BT, Reynolds L and Atta-Krah K (1990) Alley farming. Adv Agron 43: 315–358Google Scholar
  12. Kiepe P (1989) Pedological Aspects of Agroforestry Research. Lecture notes for DSO Training course, p. 3Google Scholar
  13. Luc M, Sikora RA and Bridge J (1993) Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. Cambrian Printers Ltd., UK. 629 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. MacDicken KG (1994) Selection and Management of Nitrogen Fixing Trees. Winrock International, Morrilton, Arkansas USAGoogle Scholar
  15. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (1988) Export Banana Production in Tonga. Technical Bulletin, No. 7. 18–21Google Scholar
  16. Mulongoy K and Merckx R (1993) Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture, Wiley, Chinchester UKGoogle Scholar
  17. Mwiinga RD, Kwesiga FR and Kamara CS (1994) Decomposition of leaves of six multipurpose tree species in Chipata, Zambia. Forest Ecology and Management 64: 209–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Obiefuna JC (1988) The effect of climatic conditions on the growth and yield of False Hom plantains (Musa AAB). Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 4: 349–354Google Scholar
  19. Obiefuna JC (1991) The effect of crop residue mulches on the yield and production pattern of plantain (Musa AAB). Biological Agriculture and Horticulture 8: 71–80Google Scholar
  20. Ong CK, Rao MR and Mathuva M (1992) Competition for Resources Above and Below Ground. Agroforestry Today, vol. 4. April–June, 1992. No. 2: 4–5Google Scholar
  21. Rhode RA and Jenkins WR (1958) The chemical basis of resistance of asparagus to the nematode Trichodorus christiei. Phytopathology 48(8): 463Google Scholar
  22. Ruhigwa BA (1996) Potential of Alley Cropping for Sustainable Plantain Production in the Humid Tropics. MusAfrica, No. 10, p. 19Google Scholar
  23. Swennen R (1990) Plantain cultivation under West African conditions. Inter Inst of Trop Agric: A reference manual, p. 5Google Scholar
  24. van Lauwe B, Dendooven L and Merckx R et al. (1996) Residue quality and decomposition of plant materials under controlled and field conditions. IITA Research 12: 1–6Google Scholar
  25. Wilson GF (1987) Status of banana and plantains in West Africa. In: Persely GJ and De Langhe E(eds) Banana and Plantain Breeding Strategies, pp 29–35. Proceedings of an International Workshop held at Cairns, Australia, 13–17 October, 1986. INIBAP, ACIAR No. 21Google Scholar
  26. Young A (1997) Agroforestry for soil Management. Second edition, CAB International and ICRAF. Biddles Ltd, Guildford and King's Lynn, UK. 320 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Banful
    • 1
  • A. Dzietror
    • 2
  • I. Ofori
    • 2
  • O. B. Hemeng
    • 1
  1. 1.Crops Research InstituteKumasiGhana
  2. 2.Crop Science Dept.University of GhanaLegonGhana

Personalised recommendations