Advertisement

Plant Growth Regulation

, Volume 31, Issue 1–2, pp 17–26 | Cite as

Significance of flower and fruit thinning on fruit quality

Article

Abstract

The effects of mechanical or chemical flower and fruit thinning on fruitquality were primarily by altering crop load. However, there were alsodirect effects of thinning agents. Fruit size was directly related tothinning intensity. In addition to crop load, age of wood, flower budquality, competition within clusters and canopy were important factorsaffecting the response to thinning. Short- and long-term thinningstudies identified two groups of quality components: Group 1characteristics include size, colour, skin performance, firmness andsugar and acid content of the fruit. Group 2 characteristics wererepresented by inorganic components, especially calcium and potassiumwhich are implicated in the susceptibility of fruit to physiologicaldisorders. While group 1 characteristics were improved by increasingthinning intensity, storability of the fruit was better at high than atlow crop loads. Therefore, a compromise between all quality requirementsmust be found for a good economic return. Establishing the trends ofthinning on the different quality parameters can help to select athinning strategy for local or regional conditions typically beingdetermined by growing and market conditions.

apple (Malus domestica L. Borkh.) colour crop load disorders firmness flavour fruit size russeting 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bangerth F (1979) Calcium related physiological disorders. Ann Rev Phytopath 17: 97-122Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Basak A (1996) Benzyladenine (BA) as an apple fruitlet thinning agent-preliminary results. Hort Sci 28: 54-57Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bergh O (1985) Effect of the previous crop on cortical cell number of Malus domestica cv. 'starking Delicious’ apple flower primordia, flowers and fruit. SA J Plant Soil 2: 191-196Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bergh O (1990) Effect of time of hand-thinning on apple fruit size. SA J Plant Soil 7: 7-10Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bukovac MJ, Black BL and Hull J Jr (1994) Interaction between NAA and BA on cropping and fruit size in ‘Delicious’ and ‘Empire’ apples. Hort Sci 29: 472Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Denne MP (1960) The growth of apple fruitlets and the effect of early thinning on fruit development. Ann Bot 24: 397-406Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ebert A and RJ Bender (1986) Influence of an emulsifi-able mineral oil on the thinning effects of NAA, NAAm, carbaryl and ethephon in the apple cultivar Gala grown in the conditions of southern Brazil. Acta Hort 179: 667-672Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goffinet MC, Robinson TL and Lakso AN (1995) A comparison of ‘Empire’ apple fruit in unthinned and hand-thinned trees. J Hort Sci 70: 375-387Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Greene DW and Autio WR (1989) Evaluation of benzyladenine as a chemical thinner on ‘McIntosh’ apples. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 114: 68-73Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Greene DW, Autio WR and Miller P (1990) Thinning activity of benzyladenine on several apple cultivars. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 115: 394-400Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hansen P (1982) Assimilation and carbohydrate utilization in apple. Proc XXIst Int Hort Congr, Hamburg, pp 257-268Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnson DS and Yogaratnam N (1978) The effects of phosphorus sprays on the mineral composition and storage quality of Cox's Orange Pippin apples. J Hort Sci 58: 171-178Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnson DS (1992) The effect of flower and fruitlet thinning on the firmness of ‘Cox's Orange Pippin’ apples at harvest and after storage. J Hort Sci 67: 95-101Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Johnson DS (1994) Influence of time of flower and fruit thinning on the firmness of ‘Cox's Orange Pippin’ apples at harvest and after storage. J Hort Sci 69: 197-203Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones HG and Samuelson TJ (1983) Calcium uptake by developing apple fruit. II. The role of spur leaves. J Hort Sci 58: 267-282Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones KM, Graham B, Bound SA and Oakford MJ (1993) Preliminary trials to examine the effects of ethephon as a thinner of ‘Gala’ and ‘Jonagold’ apples. J Hort Sci 68: 139-147Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lakso AN, Bepete M, Goffinet MC and Corelli Crappadelli L (1998) Aspects of carbon supply and demands in apple fruits. Acta Hort 460: 13-18Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Link H (1967) Der Einfluß der Ausdünnung auf Fruchtqualität und Erntemenge bei der Apfelsorte ‘Golden Delicious’. Gartenbauwiss 32: 423-444Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Link H (1968) Welche Früchte fallen beim chemischen Ausdünnen ab? Erwerbsobstbau 10: 190-193Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Link H (1971) Untersuchungen über das Auftreten der Rauhschaligkeit bei ‘Golden Delicious’ nach chemischem Ausdünnen mit Carbaryl. Erwerbsobstbau 13: 145-148Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Link H (1986) Einfluß von Ausdünnungsmitteln auf die Fruchtqualität bei Apfel. VDLUFA 20: 797-808Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Looney NE (1993) Improving fruit size, appearance, and other effects of fruit crop “quality” with plant bioregulating chemicals. Acta Hort 329: 120-127Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Martin D, Lewis TL and Cerny J (1964) Apple fruit cell numbers in relation to cropping alterations and certain treatments. Aust J Agric Res 15: 905-919Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    McLaughlin JM and Greene DW (1984) Effects of BA, GA4C7, and daminozide on fruit set, fruit quality, vegetative growth, flower initiation and flower quality of ‘Golden Delicious’ applies. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 109: 34-39Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Nelgen N (1982) Ñber Beziehungen zwischen vegetativer Entwicklung, Fruchtentwicklung und Fruchtqualitä bei den Apfelsorten ‘Cox Orange', ‘Golden Delicious’ und ‘Boskoop'. Ph.D-thesis Univ HohenheimGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pearson JA and Robertson RN (1953) The physiology of growth in apple fruits. IV Seasonal variation in cell size, nitrogen metabolism, and respiration in developing Granny Smith apple fruits. Austr J Biol Sci 6: 1-20Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Perring MA and Jackson CH (1975) The mineral composition of apples. Calcium concentration and bitter pit in relation to means mass per apple. J Sci Agric 26: 1493-1502Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Saure MC (1990) External control of anthocyanin formation in apple. Sci Hort 42: 181-218Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schumacher R und Fankhauser F (1974) Stippebildung und Mineralstoffgehalt von Äpfeln in Abhängigkeit von ihrer Stellung in der Baumkrone. Schweiz Landw Forsch 13: 353-364Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schumacher R and Stadler W (1985) Einfluss der Fruchtfarbe und verschiedener Ausdünnungsmethoden auf die Fruchtqualität. Schweiz Zeitschr Obst-Weinbau 121: 478-483Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schumacher R and Stadler W (1987) Zusatzpräparate verbessern die Ausdünnungswirkung von Naphthylacetamid. Schweiz Zeitschr Obst-Weinbau 123: 248-252Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sharples RO (1968) Fruit-thinning effects on the development and storage quality of ‘Cox's Orange Pippin’ apple fruits. J Hort Sci 43: 359-371Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Siddiqui S and Bangerth F (1995) Effect of pre-harvest application of calcium on flesh firmness and cell-wall composition of apples-influence of fruit size. J Hort Sci 70: 263-269Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Silbereisen R (1976) Ñber die Wirkungen früher und größenselektiver Ausdünnungen von Fruchtbehängen auf das Wachstum von Äpfeln. Angew Bot 50: 285-300Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Volz RK, Ferguson IB, Hewett EW and Woolley DJ (1994) Wood age and leaf area influence fruit size and mineral composition of apple fruit. J Hort Sci 69: 385-395Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Walter TE (1967) Factors affecting fruit colour in apples: A review of world literature. Ann Rep East Mall Res Sta: 70-82Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wertheim SJ, Nijsse F and Joosse ML (1977) Benoni telen zonder doorplucken en beurtjaren. Fruitteelt 67: 475-478Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wertheim SJ, Scholtens A and Bootsma JH (1978) Het chemisch dunnen van enkele beurtjaargevoelige rassen. Fruitteelt 68: 558-560Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wertheim SJ (1987) Jonagold kleurt pas bij veel blad per vrucht. Fruitteelt 77: 15-16Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Westwood MN, Batjer LP and Billingsley HS (1967) Cell size, number, and fruit density of apples as related to fruit size, position in cluster, and thinning method. Proc Amer Soc Hort Sci 91: 51-62Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Winter F (1969) Die “Behangdichtenmethode”, ein Modell zur Analyse und Prognose von Kernobsterträgen. Luxemburg, Agrarstatistische Studien 5: 138SGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wismer PT, Proctor JTA and Elfving DC (1995) Benzyladenine affects cell division and cell size during apple fruit thinning. J Amer Soc Hort Sci 120: 802-807Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Link
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut füur Obst-, Gemüuse- und WeinbauUniversität HohenheimRavensburgGermany

Personalised recommendations