Advertisement

Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 45, Issue 1–3, pp 159–185 | Cite as

Soil community composition and ecosystem processes: Comparing agricultural ecosystems with natural ecosystems

  • D. A. Neher
Article

Abstract

Soil organisms play principal roles in several ecosystem functions, i.e. promoting plant productivity, enhancing water relations, regulating nutrient mineralisation, permitting decomposition, and acting as an environmental buffer. Agricultural soils would more closely resemble soils of natural ecosystems if management practices would reduce or eliminate cultivation, heavy machinery, and general biocides; incorporate perennial crops and organic material; and synchronise nutrient release and water availability with plant demand. In order to achieve these goals, research must be completed to develop methods for successful application of organic materials and associated micro-organisms, synchronisation of management practices with crop and soil biota phenology, and improve our knowledge of the mechanisms linking species to ecosystem processes.

decomposition environmental monitoring fertiliser mineralisation nitrogen pesticides 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alphei J, Bonkowski M and Scheu S (1996) Protozoa, Nematoda and Lumbricidae in the rhizosphere of Hordelymus europaeus (Poaceae): faunal interactions, response of microorganisms and effects on plant growth. Oecologia 106: 111–126Google Scholar
  2. Anderson RV, Gould WD, Woods LE, Cambardella C, Ingham RE and Coleman DC (1983) Organic and inorganic nitrogenous losses by microbivorous nematodes in soil. Oikos 40: 75–80Google Scholar
  3. Andre HM, Noti MI and Lebrun P (1994) The soil fauna: the other last biotic frontier. Biodiversity and Conservation 3: 45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrén O, Bengtsson J and Clarhom M (1995) Biodiversity and species redundancy among litter decomposers. In: Collins HP, Robertson GP and Klug MJ (eds) The Significance and Regulation of Soil Biodiversity, pp 141–151. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrén O and Lagerlöf J (1983) Soil fauna (microarthropods, enchytraeids, nematodes) in Swedish agricultural cropping systems. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 33: 33–52Google Scholar
  6. Andrén O, Paustian K and Rosswall T (1988) Soil biotic interactions in the functioning of agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 24: 57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Barker KR and Campbell CL (1981) Sampling nematode populations. In: Zuckerman BM Rohde RA (eds) Plant Parasitic Nematodes, Vol III, pp 451–474. Academic Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  8. Beare MH (1997) Fungal and bacterial pathways of organic matter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in arable soil. In: Brussaard L and Ferrera-Cerrato R (eds) Soil Ecology in Sustainable Agricultural Systems, pp 37–70. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, LAGoogle Scholar
  9. Beare MH, Coleman DC, Crossley DA Jr, Hendrix PF and Odum EP (1995) A hierarchical approach to evaluating the significance of soil biodiversity to biogeochemical cycling. In: Collins HP, Robertson GP and Klug MJ (eds) The Significance and Regulation of Soil Biodiversity, pp 5–22. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  10. Beare MH, Parmelee RW, Hendrix PF, Cheng W, Coleman DC and Crossley DA Jr (1992) Microbial and faunal interactions and effects on litter nitrogen and decomposition in agroecosystems. Ecological Monographs 62: 569–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bengtsson J, Zheng DW, Agren GI and Persson T (1995) Food webs in soil: an interface between population and ecosystem ecology. In: Jones C and Lawton J (eds) Linking Species and Ecosystems, pp 159–165. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg NW and Pawluk S (1984) Soil mesofaunal studies under different vegetative regimes in North Central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 64: 209–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blevins RL, Smith MS, Thomas GW and Fry WW (1983) Influence of conservation tillage on soil properties. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 38: 301–304Google Scholar
  14. Bollag JM, Myers CJ and Minard RD (1992) Biological and chemical interactions of pesticides with soil organic matter. Science Total Environment 123/124: 205–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bongers T (1990) The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia 83: 14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Booth RG and Anderson JM (1979) The influence of fungal food quality on the growth and fecundity of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae). Oecologia 38: 317–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boström S and Söhlenius B (1986) Short-term dynamics of nematode communities in arable soil: Influence of a perennial and an annual cropping system. Pedobiologia 29: 345–357Google Scholar
  18. Chung YR, Hoitink HAH and Lipps PE (1988) Interactions between organic-matter decomposition level and soilborne disease severity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 24: 183–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Connell JH (1978) Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199: 1302–1310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clarholm M (1985) Interactions of bacteria, protozoa and plants leading to mineralization of soil nitrogen. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 17: 181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crossley DA Jr, Mueller BR and Perdue JC (1992) Biodiversity of microarthropods in agricultural soils: relations to processes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 40: 37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Curl EA and Truelove B (1986) The Rhizosphere. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 288 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Curl EA, Lartey R and Peterson CC (1988) Interactions between root pathogens and soil microarthropods. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 24: 249–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Darbyshire JF, Davidson MS, Chapman SJ and Ritchie S (1994) Excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus by the soil ciliate Colpoda steinii when fed the soil bacterium Arthrobacter sp. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26: 1193–1199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dindal DL (1990) Soil Biology Guide. John Wiley, New York, NY, 1349 ppGoogle Scholar
  26. Doran JW (1980) Soil microbial and biochemical changes associated with reduced tillage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44: 765–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Duniway JM (1983) Role of physical factors in the development of Phytophthora diseases. In: Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia S and Tsao PH (eds) Phytophthora: Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology, pp 175–187. American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, MNGoogle Scholar
  28. Eash NS, Karlen DL and Parkin TB (1994) Fungal contributions to soil aggregation and soil quality. In: Doran JW, Coleman DC, Bezdicek DF and Stewart BA (eds) Defining Soil Quality for a Sustainable Environment, pp 221–228. SSSA Special Publication No. 35, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  29. Edwards CA and Bohlen PJ (1996) Biology and Ecology of Earthworms, 3rd ed. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Elliott ET, Hunt HW and Walter CE (1988) Detrital food web interactions in North American grassland ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 24: 41–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Erwin DC, Bartnicki-Garcia S and Tsao PH (1983) Phytophthora: Its Biology, Taxonomy, Ecology, and Pathology. American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, MN, 392 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Ettema CH (1998) Soil nematode diversity: species coexistance and ecosystem function. Journal of Nematology 30: 159–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ettema CH and Bongers T (1993) Characterisation of nematode colonisation and succession in disturbed soil using the Maturity Index. Biology and Fertility of Soils 16: 79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferris VR and Ferris JC (1974) Inter-relationships between nematode and plant communities in agricultural ecosystems. Agro-Ecosystems 1: 275–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Filser J, Fromm H, Nagel RF and Winter K (1995) Effects of previous intensive agricultural management on microorganisms and the biodiversity of soil fauna. Plant and Soil 170: 123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foissner W (1992) Comparative studies on the soil life in ecofarmed and conventionally farmed fields and grasslands of Austria. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 40: 207–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Foissner W (1997) Protozoa as bioindicators in agroecosystems, with emphasis on farming practices, biocides, and biodiversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 62: 93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Foster RC and Dormaar JF (1991) Bacteria-grazing amoebae in situ in the rhizosphere. Biology and Fertility of Soils 11: 83–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Freckman DW and Ettema CH (1993) Assessing nematode communities in agroecosystems of varying human intervention. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 45: 239–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giller KE, Beare MH, Lavelle P, Izac A-MN and Swift MJ (1997) Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function. Applied Soil Ecology 6: 3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goodell P and Ferris H (1980) Plant-parasitic nematode distributions in an alfalfa field. Journal of Nematology 12: 136–141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Griffin DM (1981) Water potential as a selective factor in the microbial ecology of soils. In: Parr JF, Gardner WR and Elliott LF (eds) Water Potential Relations in Soil Microbiology, pp 141–151. Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication No. 9, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffiths BS (1994) Soil nutrient flow. In: Darbyshire J (ed) Soil Protozoa, pp 65–91. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UKGoogle Scholar
  44. Gupta VVSR and Germida JJ (1988) Distribution of microbial biomass and its activity in different soil aggregate size classes as affected by cultivation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 20: 777–786CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harding DJL and Studdart RA (1974) Microarthropods. In: Dickinson DH and Pugh GJF (eds) Biology of Plant Litter Decomposition, pp 489–532. Academic Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  46. Hassink J, Bouwman LA, Zwart KB and Brussaard L (1993) Relationships between habitable pore space soil biota and mineralization rates in grassland soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25: 47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hawksworth DL and Mound LA (1991) Biodiversity databases: the crucial significance of collections. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) The Biodiversity of Microorganisms and Invertebrates: Its Role in Sustainable Agriculture, pp 17–29. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  48. Hendrix PF, Parmelee RW, Crossley DA Jr., Coleman DC, Odum EP and Groffman PM (1986) Detritus food webs in conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. BioScience 36: 374–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hobbs RJ and Huenneke LF (1992) Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 6: 324–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holland EA and Coleman DC (1987) Litter placement effects on microbial and organic matter dynamics in an agroecosystem. Ecology 68: 425–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hunt HW, Coleman DC, Ingham ER, Ingham RE, Elliott ET, Moore JC, Rose SL, Reid CPP and Morley CR (1987) The detrital food web in a shortgrass prairie. Biology and Fertility of Soils 3: 57–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ingham ER (1998) Managing the soil foodweb to benefit plant growth: care and feeding of soil microherds. Journal of Nematology 29: 585Google Scholar
  53. Ingham ER, Coleman DC and Moore JC (1989) An analysis of food-web structure and function in a shortgrass prairie, a mountain meadow, and a lodgepole pine forest. Biology and Fertility of Soils 8: 29–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ingham RE, Trofymow JA, Ingham ER and Coleman DC (1985) Interactions of bacteria, fungi, and their nematode grazers: effects on nutrient cycling and plant growth. Ecological Monographs 55: 119–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jackson W (1985) New Roots for Agriculture. University of Nebraska Press, Nebraska, 150 ppGoogle Scholar
  56. Janzen D (1977) Why fruits rot, seeds mold, and meats spoil. American Naturalist 111: 691–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Janzen D (1985) Natural history of mutualism. In: Boucher DH (ed) Biology of Mutualism. Ecology and Evolution, pp 40–99. Oxford University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  58. Jentschke G, Bonkowski M, Godbold DL and Scheu S (1995) Soil protozoa and forest tree growth: non-nutritional effects and interactions with mycorrhizae. Biology and Fertility of Soils 20: 263–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. King KL and Hutchinson KJ (1976) The effects of sheep stocking intensity on the abundance and distribution of mesofauna in pastures. Journal of Applied Ecology 13: 41–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kitazawa Y (1971) Biological regionality of the soil fauna and its function in forest ecosystem types. In: Proceedings of the Brussels Symposium 1969, Ecology and Conservation No. 4. Productivity of Forest Ecosystems, pp 485–498. UNESCOGoogle Scholar
  61. Koehler HH (1992) The use of soil mesofauna for the judgement of chemical impact on ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 40: 193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lal R (1991) Soil conservation and biodiversity In: Hawksworth DL (ed) The Biodiversity of Microorganisms and Invertebrates: Its Role in Sustainable Agriculture, pp 89–104. CAB International, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  63. Larson WE and Pierce FJ (1991) Conservation and enhancement of soil quality. In: IBSRAM Proceedings 12(2). Evaluation for Sustainable Land Management in the Development World. Volume 2. Bangkok, Thailand. International Board for Soil Research and ManagementGoogle Scholar
  64. Lavelle P, Lattaud C, Trigo D and Barois I (1995) Mutualism and biodiversity in soils. Plant and Soil 170: 23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Linn DC and Doran JW (1984) Effect of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in tilled and non-tilled soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 48: 1267–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Moore JC and de Ruiter PC (1991) Temporal and spatial heterogeneity of trophic interactions within below-ground food webs. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 34: 371–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Moore JC, Walter DE and Hunt HW (1988) Arthropod regulation of micro-and mesobiota in below-ground detrital food webs. Annual Review of Entomology 33: 419–439Google Scholar
  68. Mueller BR, Beare MH and Crossley DA Jr (1990) Soil mites in detrital food webs of conventional and no-tillage agroecosystems. Pedobiologia 34: 389–401Google Scholar
  69. Neher D and Duniway JM (1992) Dispersal of Phytophthora parasitica in tomato fields by furrow irrigation. Plant Disease 76: 582–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Neher DA and Campbell CL (1994) Nematode communities and microbial biomass in soils with annual and perennial crops. Applied Soil Ecology 1: 17–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Neher DA and Campbell CL (1996) Sampling for regional monitoring of nematode communities in agricultural soils. Journal of Nematology 28: 196–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Neher DA and Barbercheck ME (1998) Diversity and role of soil mesofauna. In: Collins W (ed) Importance of Biodiversity in Agroecosystems, Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, Michigan (in press)Google Scholar
  73. Neher DA, Peck SL, Rawlings JO and Campbell CL (1995) Measures of nematode community structure for an agroecosystem monitoring program and sources of variability among and within agricultural fields. Plant and Soil 170: 167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Noe JP and Campbell CL (1985). Spatial pattern analysis of plant-parasitic nematodes. Journal of Nematology 17: 86–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Old KM (1967) Effects of natural soil on survival of Cochliobolus sativus. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 50: 615–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ott P, Hansen S and Vogtmann H (1983) Nitrates in relation to composting and use of farmyard manures. In: Lockeretz W (ed) Environmentally Sound Agriculture, pp 145–154. Praeger, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  77. Petraitis PS, Latham RE and Niesenbaum RA (1989) The maintenance of species diversity by disturbance. Quarterly Review of Biology 64: 393–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Potter DA (1993) Pesticide and fertiliser effects on beneficial invertebrates and consequences for thatch degradation and pest outbreaks in turfgrass. In: Racke KD and Leslie AR (eds) Pesticides in Urban Environments: Fate and Significance, pp 331–343. ACS Symposium Series No. 522, American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  79. Richards BN (1987) The Microbiology of Terrestrial Ecosystems. Longman Scientific and Technical, New York, New York, 399 ppGoogle Scholar
  80. Ryder MH, Brisbane PG and Rovira AD (1990) Mechanisms in the biological control of take-all of wheat by rhizosphere bacteria. In: Hornby D (ed) Biological Control of Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens, pp 123–130. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  81. Samways MH (1992) Some comparative insect conservation issues of north temperate, tropical and south temperate landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 40: 137–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Seastedt TR (1984) The role of microarthropods in decomposition and mineralization processes. Annual Review of Entomology 29: 25–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Seastedt TR, James SW and Todd TC (1988) Interactions among soil invertebrates, microbes and plant growth in the tallgrass prairie. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 24: 219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Setälä H (1995) Growth of birch and pine seedlings in relation to grazing by soil fauna on ectomycorrhizal fungi. Ecology 76: 1844–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Setälä H and Huhta V (1991) Soil fauna increase Betula pendula growth: laboratory experiments with coniferous forest floor. Ecology 72: 665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Setälä H, Tyynismaa M, Martikainen E and Huhta V (1991) Mineralisation of C, N and P in relation to decomposer community structure in coniferous forest soil. Pedobiologia 35: 285–296Google Scholar
  87. Söhlenius B, Boström S and Sandor A (1988) Carbon and nitrogen budgets of nematodes in arable soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 6: 1–8Google Scholar
  88. Sommers LE, Gilmour CM, Wildung RE and Beck SM (1981) In: Parr JF, Gardner WR and Elliott LF (eds) Water Potential Relations in Soil Microbiology, pp 97–117. Soil Science Society of America, Special Publication No. 9, Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  89. Steen E (1983) Soil animals in relation to agricultural practices and soil productivity. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research 13: 157–165Google Scholar
  90. Strueve-Kusenberg R (1982) Succession and trophic structure of soil animal communities in different suburban fallow areas. In: Bornkamm R, Lee JA and Seaward CRD (eds) Urban Ecology, pp 89–98. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  91. Swift CJ, Heal OW and Anderson JC (1979). Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems. University of California, Berkeley, California, 372 ppGoogle Scholar
  92. Teuben A and Verhoef HA (1992) Direct contribution by soil arthropods to nutrient availability through body and faecal nutrient content. Biology and Fertility of Soils 14: 71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thimm T and Larink O (1995) Grazing preferences of some Collembola for endomycorrhizal fungi. Biology and Fertility of Soils 19: 266–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Trofymow JA and Coleman DC (1982) The role of bacterivorous and fungivorous nematodes in cellulose and chitin decomposition in the context of a root/rhizosphere/soil conceptual model. In: Freckman DW (ed) Nematodes in Soil Ecosystems, pp 117–138. University of Texas, AustinGoogle Scholar
  95. Van de Bund CF (1970) Influence of crop and tillage on mites and springtails in arable soil. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 18: 308–314Google Scholar
  96. Van Vliet PCJ, Beare MH and Coleman DC (1995) Population dynamics and functional roles of Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta) in hardwood forest and agricultural ecosystems. Plant and Soil 170: 199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Verhoef HA and Brussard L (1990) Decomposition and nitrogen mineralization in natural and agro-ecosystems: The contribution of soil animals. Biogeochemistry 11: 175–211Google Scholar
  98. Walter DE (1987) Trophic behaviour of (mycophagous) microarthropods. Ecology 68: 226–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Walter DE and Ikonen EK (1989) Species, guilds, and functional groups: taxonomy and behaviour in nematophagous arthropods. Journal of Nematology 21: 315–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Walter DE, Hudgens RA and Freckman DW (1986) Consumption of nematodes by fungivorous mites, Tyrophagus spp. (Acarina: Astigmata: Acaridae). Oecologia 70: 357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Walter DE, Hunt HW and Elliott ET (1988) Guilds or functional groups? An analysis of predatory arthropods from a shortgrass steppe soil. Pedobiologia 31: 247–260Google Scholar
  102. Wardle DA (1995) Impacts of disturbance on detritus food webs in agro-ecosystems of contrasting tillage and weed management practices. Advances in Ecological Research 26: 105–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wardle DA and Yeates GW (1993) The dual importance of competition and predation as regulatory forces in terrestrial ecosystems: evidence from decomposer food-webs. Oecologia 93: 303–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wardle DA, Yeates GW, Watson RN and Nicholson KS (1995) The detritus food-web and the diversity of soil fauna as indicators of disturbance regimes in agro-ecosystems. Plant and Soil 170: 35–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wasilewska L (1979) The structure and function of soil nematode communities in natural ecosystems and agrocenoses. Polish Ecological Studies 5: 97–145Google Scholar
  106. Wasilewska L (1989) Impact of human activities on nematodes. In: Charholm C and Bergstrom L (eds) Ecology of Arable Land, pp 123–132. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  107. Wasilewska L, Jakubczyk H and Paplinska E (1975) Production of Aphelenchus avenae Bastian (Nematoda) and reduction of mycelium of saprophytic fungi by them. Polish Ecological Studies 1: 61–73Google Scholar
  108. Weil RR and Kroontje W (1979) Effects of manuring on the arthropod community in an arable soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 11: 669–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Weiss B and Larink O (1991) Influence of sewage sludge and heavy metals on nematodes in an arable soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 12: 5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Whitford WG, Freckman DW, Santos PF, Elkins NZ and Parker LW (1982) The role of nematodes in decomposition in desert ecosystems. In: Freckman DW (ed) Nematodes in Soil Ecosystems, pp 98–115. University of Texas, AustinGoogle Scholar
  111. Wicklow DT (1981) Interference competition and the organization of fungal communities. In: Wicklow DT and Carroll GC (eds) The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem, pp 351–375. Marcel Dekker, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  112. Whitaker RH (1975) Communities and Ecosystems. 2nd ed. Macmillian, New York, 385 ppGoogle Scholar
  113. Yeates GW (1984) Variation in soil nematode diversity under pasture with soil and year. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 16: 95–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Yeates GW (1994) Modification and qualification of the nematode maturity index. Pedobiologia 38: 97–101Google Scholar
  115. Yeates GW and Wardle DA (1996) Nematodes as predators and prey: relationships to biological control and soil processes. Pedobiologia 40: 43–50Google Scholar
  116. Yeates GW and Coleman DC (1982) Nematodes in decomposition. In: Freckman DW (ed) Nematodes in Soil Ecosystems, pp 55–80. University of Texas, AustinGoogle Scholar
  117. Yeates GW, Bamforth SS, Ross DJ, Tate KR and Sparling GP (1991) Recolonization of methyl bromide sterilized soils under four different field conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils 11: 181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zwart KB, Kuikman PJ and VanVeen JA (1994) Rhizosphere protozoa: their significance in nutrient dynamics. In: Darbyshire J (ed) Soil Protozoa, pp 93–121. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UKGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. A. Neher
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of ToledoToledoUSA

Personalised recommendations