We present millimeter-wave observations of HNCO, HC3N, SO, NH2CHO, H13CN, and H3O+ in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp)obtained in February–April, 1997 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). HNCO, first detected at the CSO in comet C/1996B2 (Hyakutake), is securely confirmed in comet Hale-Bopp via observations of three rotational transitions. The derived abundance with respect to H2O is (4-13) × 10-4. HC3N, SO, and NH2CHO are detected for the first time in a comet. The fractional abundance of HC3N based on observations of three rotational lines is (1.9 ± 0.2) × 10-4. Four transitions of SO are detected and the derived fractional abundance, (2-8) ×10-3, is higher than the upper limits derived from UV observations of previous comets. Observations of NH2CHO imply a fractional abundance of (1-8) × 10-4. H3O is detected for the first time from the ground. The H13CN (3-2)transition is also detected and the derived HCN/H13CN abundance ratio is 90 ± 15, consistent with the terrestrial12C/13C ratio. In addition, a number of other molecular species are detected, including HNC, OCS, HCO+, CO+, and CN(the last two are first detections in a comet at radio wavelengths).
Comets composition radio observations spectroscopy