Advertisement

Experimental & Applied Acarology

, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp 659–667 | Cite as

A Comparative Study of Varroa Jacobsoni Reproduction in Worker Cells of Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) in England and Africanized Bees in Yucatan, Mexico

  • Luis Medina Medina
  • Stephen John Martin
Article

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate an underlying mechanism of the apparent tolerance of Africanized honey bees (AHB) to Varroa jacobsoni mites in Mexico. This was achieved by conducting the first detailed study into the mites' reproductive biology in AHB worker cells. The data was then compared directly with a similar study previously carried out on European honey bees (EHB) in the UK. A total of 1071 singly infested AHB worker cells were analyzed and compared with the data from 908 singly infested EHB worker cells. There was no significant difference between the number of mother mites dying in the cells (AHB = 2.0%, EHB = 1.8%); the mean number of eggs laid per mite (AHB = 4.86, EHB = 4.93); the number of mites producing no offspring (AHB = 12%, EHB = 9%); and developmental times of the offspring in worker cells of AHB and EHB. However, there was a major difference between the percentage of mother mites producing viable adult female offspring (AHB = 40%, EHB = 75%). This was caused by the increased rate of mite offspring mortality suffered by the first (male) and second (female) offspring in AHB worker cells. Therefore, only an average of 0.7 viable adult female offspring are produced per mite in AHB, compared to 1.0 in EHB.

Varroa jacobsoni Apis mellifera mite reproduction Africanized bees mite tolerance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blum, R. 1989. Reproduction of Varroa in relation to protein supply of the honey bee colonies. Apidologie 20, 509–512.Google Scholar
  2. Boot, W.J., Tan, N.Q., Dien, P.C., Huan, L.V., Dung, N.V., Long, L.T. and Beetsma. J. 1997. Reproductive success of Varroa jacobsoni in brood of its original host, Apis cerana, in comparison to that of its new host, A. mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 87, 119–126.Google Scholar
  3. Corrêa-Marques, M.H. and De Jong, D. 1998. Uncapping of worker bee brood, a component of the hygienic behavior of Africanized honey bees against the mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans. Apidologie 29, 283–289.Google Scholar
  4. Daly, H.V. and Balling, S.S. 1978. Identification of Africanized honey bees in the Western Hemisphere by discriminant analysis. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 51, 857–869.Google Scholar
  5. De Jong, D. 1990. Mites: Varroa and other parasites of brood. In: Honey Bee Pests, Predators, and Diseases, R.A. Morse and R. Nowogrodzki (eds), pp. 200–218. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York.Google Scholar
  6. De Jong, D. 1996. Africanized honey bees in Brazil, forty years of adaptation and success. Bee World 77, 67–70.Google Scholar
  7. De Jong, D., Gonçalves, L.S. and Morse, R.A. 1984. Dependence on climate of the virulence of Varroa jacobsoni. Bee World 65, 117–121.Google Scholar
  8. Donzé, G. and Guerin, P.M. 1997. Time-activity budgets and space structuring by the different life stages of Varroa jacobsoni in capped brood of the honey bee Apis mellifera. J. Insect Behaviour 10, 371–393.Google Scholar
  9. Guzman, L.I. de, Rinderer, T.E. and Stelzer, J.A. 1999. Occurrence of two genotypes of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in North America. Apidologie 30, 31–36.Google Scholar
  10. Guzman-Novoa, E., Sanchez, A., Page, Jr., R.E. and Garcia, T. 1996. Susceptibility of European and Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and their hybrids to Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 27, 93–103.Google Scholar
  11. Ifantidis, M.D. 1983. Ontogenesis of the mite Varroa jacobsoni in worker and drone brood cells. J. Apicult. Res. 23, 227–233.Google Scholar
  12. Martin, S.J. 1994. Ontogenesis of the mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in worker brood of the honey bee Apis mellifera L. under natural conditions. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 18, 87–100.Google Scholar
  13. Martin, S.J. 1998. A population model for the ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. Ecological Modelling 109, 267–281.Google Scholar
  14. Martin, S.J. and Kemp, D. 1997. Average number of reproductive cycles performed by Varroa jacobsoni in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies. J. Apicult. Res. 36, 113–123.Google Scholar
  15. Martin, S.J., Holland, K. and Murray, M. 1997. Non-reproduction in the honey bee mite Varroa jacobsoni. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 21, 539–549.Google Scholar
  16. Medina L.M. 1998. Frequency and infestation levels of the mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in managed honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies in Yucatan, Mexico. Am. Bee J. 138, 125–127.Google Scholar
  17. Message, D. and Gonçalves, L.S. 1995. Effect of the size of worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees on infestation and reproduction of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. Apidologie 26, 381–386.Google Scholar
  18. Moretto, G., Gonçalves, L.S. and De Jong, D. 1993. Heritability of Africanized and European honey bee defensive behavior against the mite Varroa jacobsoni. Braz. J. Genet. 16, 71–77.Google Scholar
  19. Moretto, G., Gonçalves, L.S., De Jong, D. and Bichuette, M.Z. 1991. The effects of climate and bee race on Varroa jacobsoni Oud infestation in Brazil. Apidologie 22, 197–203.Google Scholar
  20. Moretto, G., Pilatti, A., Cassini, F.L., Dellatorre, S.F., Bonetto, L.C. and Puttkammer, E. 1995. Levels of infestation by the mite Varroa jacobsoni in colonies of Apis mellifera honey bees in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Apiacta 30, 9–12.Google Scholar
  21. Moretto, G., Gonçalves, L.S. and De Jong, D. 1997. Relationship between food availability and the reproductive ability of the mite Varroa jacobsoni in Africanized bee colonies. Am. Bee J. 137, 67–69.Google Scholar
  22. Moritz, R.F.A. 1985. Heritability of the post capping stage in Apis mellifera and its relation to varroatosis resistance. J. Hered. 76, 267–270.Google Scholar
  23. Quezada-Euan, J.J., Echazarreta, C.M. and Paxton, R.J. 1996. The distribution and range expansion of Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera) in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. J. Apic. Res. 35, 85–95.Google Scholar
  24. Rodriguez, S.R., Moro, J.M. and Otero, G.C. 1992. Varroa found in Mexico. Am. Bee. J. 132, 728–729.Google Scholar
  25. Rosenkranz, P. and Engels, W. 1994. Infertility of Varroa jacobsoni females after invasion into Apis mellifera worker brood as tolerance factor against varroatosis. Apidologie 25, 402–411.Google Scholar
  26. Vandame R., 1996. Importance of host hybridization in the tolerance to a parasite. Example of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni, in colonies of European and Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera, in humid tropical climate of Mexico. Ph.D. Thesis. Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon, France, pp. 111 (in French).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Medina Medina
    • 1
  • Stephen John Martin
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Apicultura, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autonoma de YucatanMerida, YucatanMexico
  2. 2.Central Science Laboratory, Sand HuttonNational Bee UnitYorkUK

Personalised recommendations