Advertisement

Biogeochemistry

, Volume 49, Issue 1, pp 1–19 | Cite as

Fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide from a small productive lake to the atmosphere

  • Peter Casper
  • Stephen C. Maberly
  • Grahame H. Hall
  • Bland J. Finlay
Article

Abstract

The fluxes of CH4 and CO2 to the atmosphere, and the relative contributions of ebullition and molecular diffusion, were determined for a small hypertrophic freshwater lake (Priest Pot, UK) over the period May to October 1997. The average total flux of CH4 and CO2 (estimated from 7 sites on the lake) was approximately 52 mmol m−2 d−1 and was apportioned 12 and 40 mmol m−2 d−1 toCH4 and CO2 respectively. Diffusion across the air-water interface accounted for the loss of 0.4and 40 mmol m−2 d−1 of CH4 and CO2 respectively whilst the corresponding figures for ebullition losses were 12.0 (CH4) and 0.23 (CO2) mmol m−2 d−1. Most CH4 (96%) was lost by ebullition, and most CO2 (99%) by diffusive processes. The ebullition of gas, measured at weekly intervals along a transect of the lake, showed high spatial and temporal variation. The CH4 content of the trapped gas varied between 44 and 88% (by volume) and was highest at the deepest points. Pulses of gas ebullition were detected during periods of rapidly falling barometric pressure. Therelevance of the measurements to global estimates ofcarbon emission from freshwaters are discussed.

carbon dioxide diffusion ebullition emission freshwater hypertrophic lakes methane 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barber LE & Ensign JC (1979) Methane formation and release in a small Wisconsin lake. Geomicrob. J. 1: 341–353Google Scholar
  2. Bartlett KB, Crill PM, Sebacher DI, Harriss RC, Wilson JO & Melack JM (1988) Methane flux from the central Amazon floodplain. J. Geophys. Res. 93: 1571–1582Google Scholar
  3. Brix H, Sorrell BK & Schierup H-H (1996) Gas fluxes achieved by in situ convective flow in Phragmites australis. Aquat. Bot. 54: 151–163Google Scholar
  4. Casper P (1992) Methane production in lakes of different trophic state. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 37: 149–154Google Scholar
  5. Chanton JP, Whiting GJ, Happell JD & Gerard G (1993) Contrasting rates and diurnal patterns of methane emissions from emergent aquatic macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 46: 111–128Google Scholar
  6. Chanton JP, Martens CS & Kelley CA (1989) Gas transport from methane-saturated, tidal freshwater and wetland sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 34: 807–819Google Scholar
  7. Chanton JP & Martens CS (1988) Seasonal variations in ebullitive flux and carbon isotopic composition of methane in a tidal freshwater estuary. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 2: 289–298Google Scholar
  8. Cicerone RJ & Oremland RS (1988) Biogeochemical aspects of atmospheric methane. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 2: 299–327Google Scholar
  9. Cole JJ, Caraco NF, Kling GW & Kratz TK (1994) Carbon dioxide supersaturation in the surface waters of lakes. Science 265: 1568–1570Google Scholar
  10. Conrad, R (1996) Soil microorganisms as controllers of atmospheric trace gases (H2, CO, CH4, OCS, N2O, and NO). Microbiol. Rev. 60: 609–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dacey, JWH & Klug MJ (1979) Pressurized ventilation in the yellow waterlily. Science 203: 1253–1255Google Scholar
  12. Davison W & Finlay BJ (1986) Ferrous iron and phototrophy as alternative sinks for sulphide in the anoxic hypolimnia of two adjacent lakes. J. Ecol. 74: 663–673Google Scholar
  13. Ehhalt DH (1974) The atmospheric cycle of methane. Tellus 26: 58–70Google Scholar
  14. Emerson S (1975) Gas exchange rates in small Canadian Shield lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30: 754–761Google Scholar
  15. Fallon RD, Harrits S, Hanson RS & Brock TD (1980) The role of methane in internal carbon cycling in Lake Mendota during summer stratification. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25: 357–360Google Scholar
  16. Finlay BJ, Maberly SC & Cooper JI (1997) Microbial diversity and ecosystem function. Oikos 80: 209–213Google Scholar
  17. Frenzel P, Thebrath B & Conrad R (1990) Oxidation of methane in the oxic surface layer of a deep lake sediment (Lake Constance). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 73: 149–158Google Scholar
  18. Goulder R (1971) Vertical distribution of some ciliated protozoa in two freshwater sediments. Oikos 22: 199–203Google Scholar
  19. Hall GH, Simon BM & Pickup RW (1996) CH4 production in blanket bog peat: A procedure for sampling, sectioning and incubating samples whilst maintaining anaerobic conditions. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28: 9–15Google Scholar
  20. Heaney SI (1974) A pneumatically-operated water sampler for close interval depth. Freshwat. Biol. 4: 103–106Google Scholar
  21. House WA, Howard JR & Skirrow G (1984) Kinetics of carbon dioxide transfer across the air/water interface. Faraday Discussions Chem. Soc. 77: 33–46Google Scholar
  22. Jones JG & Simon BM (1980) Decomposition processes in the profundal region of Blelham Tarn and the Lund tubes. J. Ecol. 68: 493–512Google Scholar
  23. Khalil MAK & Shearer MJ (1993) Sources of methane: An overview. In: Khalil MAK (Ed.) AtmosphericMethane: Sources, Sinks, and Role in Global Change (pp 180–198). Springer VerlagGoogle Scholar
  24. Kling GW, Kipphut GW & Miller MC (1992) The flux of CO2 and CH4 from lakes and rivers in arctic Alaska. Hydrobiologia 240: 23–36Google Scholar
  25. Klump JV & Martens CS (1981) Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin-II. Nutrient sediment-water exchange processes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45: 101–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuivila KM, Murray JW, Devol AH, Lidstrom ME & Reimers CE (1988) Methane cycling in the sediments of Lake Washington. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33: 571–581Google Scholar
  27. Liss PS & Merlivat L (1986) Air-sea gas exchange: Introduction and synthesis. In: Buat-Menard P (Ed.) Air-sea Gas Exchange in Geochemical Cycling (pp 113–127). D. Reidel Publ. Comp., DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  28. Maberly SC (1990) Exogenous sources of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis by marine macroalgae. J. Phycol. 26: 439–449Google Scholar
  29. Maberly SC (1996) Diel, episodic and seasonal changes in pH and concentrations of inorganic carbon in a productive lake. Freshwater Biol. 35: 579–598Google Scholar
  30. Martens CS & Klump JV (1980) Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin-I. Methane sediment-water exchange processes. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44: 471–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Martens CS & Chanton JP (1989) Radon as a tracer of biogenic gas equilibration and transport from methane-saturated sediments. J. Geophys. Res. 94: 3451–3459Google Scholar
  32. Mattson MD & Likens GE (1990) Air pressure and methane fluxes. Nature 347: 713–714Google Scholar
  33. Mattson MD & Likens GE (1993) Redox reactions of organic matter decomposition in a soft water lake. Biogeochemistry 19: 1149–1172Google Scholar
  34. Michmerhuizen CM, Striegl RG & McDonald ME (1996) Potential methane emission from north-temperate lakes following ice melt. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41: 985–991Google Scholar
  35. Miller LG & Oremland RS (1988) Methane efflux from the pelagic regions of four lakes. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 2: 269–277Google Scholar
  36. Naiman RJ, Manning T & Johnston CA (1991) Beaver population fluctuations and tropospheric methane emissions in boreal wetlands. Biogeochemistry 12: 1–15Google Scholar
  37. Portielje R & Lijklema L (1995) Carbon dioxide fluxes across the air-water interface and its impact on carbon availability in aquatic systems. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 690–699Google Scholar
  38. Rebsdorf A, Thyssen N & Erlandsen M (1991) Regional and temporal variation in pH, alkalinity and carbon dioxide in Danish streams, related to soil type and land use. Freshwat. Biol 25: 419–435Google Scholar
  39. Rudd JWM & Taylor CD (1980) Methane cycling in aquatic environments. Ann. Rev. Water Microbiol. 2: 77–150Google Scholar
  40. Rudd JWM & Hamilton RD (1978) Methane cycling in a eutrophic shield lake and its effects on whole lake metabolism. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 337–348Google Scholar
  41. Rudd JWM, Harris R, Kelly CA & Hecky RE (1993) Are hydroelectric reservoirs significant sources of greenhouse gases? Ambio 22: 246–248Google Scholar
  42. Sebacher DI, Harriss RC & Bartlett KB (1985) Methane emissions to the atmosphere through aquatic plants. J. Environ. Qual. 14: 40–46Google Scholar
  43. Segers R (1998) Methane production and methane consumption: a review of processes underlying wetland methane fluxes. Biogeochemistry 41: 23–51Google Scholar
  44. Sellers P, Hesslein RH & Kelly CA (1995) Continuous measurement of CO2 for estimation of air-water fluxes in lakes: An in situ technique. Limnol. Oceanogr. 40: 575–581Google Scholar
  45. Smith LK & Lewis JWM (1992) Seasonality of methane emissions from five lakes and associated wetlands of the Colorado Rockies. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6: 323–338Google Scholar
  46. Striegl RG & Michmerhuizen CM (1999) Hydrological influences on methane and carbon dioxide dynamics at two north-central Minnesota lakes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 44: in pressGoogle Scholar
  47. Sweerts J-PRA, Dekker TMJ & Cappenberg TE (1996) Methane oxidation at the sedimentwater interface of shallow eutrophic Lake Loosdrecht and deep meso-eutrophic Lake Vechten. Mitt. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 25: 197–203Google Scholar
  48. Talling JF (1973) The application of some electrochemical methods to the measurement of photosynthesis and respiration in fresh waters. Freshwat. Biol. 3: 335–362Google Scholar
  49. Talling JF (1976) The depletion of carbon dioxide from lake water by phytoplankton. J. Ecology 64: 79–121Google Scholar
  50. Upstill-Goddard RC, Watson AJ, Liss PS & Liddicoat MI (1990) Gas transfer velocities in lakes measured with SF6. Tellus 42B: 364–377Google Scholar
  51. Wetzel R (1983) Limnology. Saunders College, Philadelphia, Pa, U.S.A.Google Scholar
  52. Whalen SC & Reeburgh WS (1990) A methane flux transect along the trans-Alaska pipeline haul road. Tellus 42B: 237–249Google Scholar
  53. Yamamoto S, Alcauskas JB & Crozier TE (1976) Solubility of methane in distilled water and seawater. J. Chem. Engng Data 21: 78–80Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Casper
    • 1
  • Stephen C. Maberly
    • 2
  • Grahame H. Hall
    • 2
  • Bland J. Finlay
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Limnology of Stratified LakesInstitute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland FisheriesNeuglobsowGermany
  2. 2.Windermere LaboratoryInstitute of Freshwater EcologyFar Sawrey, CumbriaU.K.

Personalised recommendations