The role of lipids in plastid protein transport
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The elaborate compartmentalization of plant cells requires multiple mechanisms of protein targeting and trafficking. In addition to the organelles found in all eukaryotes, the plant cell contains a semi-autonomous organelle, the plastid. The plastid is not only the most active site of protein transport in the cell, but with its three membranes and three aqueous compartments, it also represents the most topologically complex organelle in the cell. The chloroplast contains both a protein import system in the envelope and multiple protein export systems in the thylakoid. Although significant advances have identified several proteinaceous components of the protein import and export apparatuses, the lipids found within plastid membranes are also emerging as important players in the targeting, insertion, and assembly of proteins in plastid membranes. The apparent affinity of chloroplast transit peptides for chloroplast lipids and the tendency for unsaturated MGDG to adopt a hexagonal II phase organization are discussed as possible mechanisms for initiating the binding and/or translocation of precursors to plastid membranes. Other important roles for lipids in plastid biogenesis are addressed, including the spontaneous insertion of proteins into the outer envelope and thylakoid, the role of cubic lipid structures in targeting and assembly of proteins to the prolamellar body, and the repair process of D1 after photoinhibition. The current progress in the identification of the genes and their associated mutations in galactolipid biosynthesis is discussed. Finally, the potential role of plastid-derived tubules in facilitating macromolecular transport between plastids and other cellular organelles is discussed.
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