Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 491–539 | Cite as

Parametrizing Agr: Word Order, V-Movement and Epp-Checking

  • Artemis Alexiadou
  • Elena Anagnostopoulou


The paper investigates a number of asymmetries in the behavior of subjects in Germanic, Celtic/Arabic, Romance, and Greek. The languages under investigation divide into two main groups with respect to a cluster of properties, including the availability of pro-drop with referential subjects, the possibility of VSO/VOS orders, the A/A′ status of subjects in SVO orders, the presence/absence of Definiteness Restriction (DR)-effects in unaccusative constructions, the existence of verb-raising independently of V-2, and others. We argue that the key factor in this split is a parametrization in the way the Extended Projection Principle (EPP) is checked: move/merge XP vs. move/merge X0. The first option is taken in Germanic, the second in Celtic, Greek, and Romance. According to our proposal, the EPP relates to checking of a nominal feature of AGR (cf. Chomsky 1995), and move/merge X0 languages satisfy the EPP via V-raising, as their verbal agreement morphology includes the requisite nominal feature (cf. Taraldsen 1978). Moreover, we demonstrate that the further differences that exist between Celtic/Arabic on the one hand and Romance/Greek on the other are related to the parametric availability of Spec,TP for subjects (cf. Jonas and Bobaljik 1993, Bobaljik and Jonas 1996). In Celtic and Arabic, Spec,TP for subjects is licensed, resulting in VSO orders with VP external subjects. In Greek and Romance, Spec,TP is not licensed, resulting in 'subject inverted' orders with VP internal subjects. In other words, we show that within the class of move/merge X0 languages, a further partition emerges which is due to the same parameter dividing Germanic languages into two major classes. We demonstrate that combining the proposed EPP/AGR parameter with the Spec,TP parameter gives four language-types with distinct properties.


Main Group Major Classis Word Order Distinct Property Nominal Feature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adger, David: 1993, Functional Heads and Interpretation, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  2. Alexiadou, Artemis: 1994, Issues in the Syntax of Adverbs, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Potsdam.Google Scholar
  3. Alexiadou, Artemis: 1997a, Adverb Placement: A Case Study in Antisymmetric Syntax, John Benjamins, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  4. Alexiadou, Artemis: 1997b, ‘On the Properties of Some Greek Word Order Patterns’, to appear in A. Alexiadou, G. Horrocks, and M. Stavrou (eds.), Studies in Greek Syntax, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  5. Alexiadou, Artemis and Elena Anagnostopoulou: 1997a, ‘Covert Feature Movement and the Placement of Arguments’, to appear in The Minimalist Parameter: Papers Deriving from the Open Linguistics Forum “Challenges of Minimalism”, John Benjamins, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  6. Alexiadou, Artemis and Elena Anagnostopoulou: 1997b, ‘Restrictions on the Placement of Arguments’, unpublished manuscript, Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft and MIT.Google Scholar
  7. Alexiadou, Artemis and Elena Anagnostopoulou: 1997c, ‘EPP without Spec, IP’, to appear in the Proceedings of the Specifiers Conference, March 1996, University of York, Oxford University Press Oxford.Google Scholar
  8. Anagnostopoulou, Elena: 1994, Clitic Dependencies in Modern Greek, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Salzburg.Google Scholar
  9. Anagnostopoulou, Elena: 1997, ‘On Experiencers’, to appear in A. Alexiadou, G. Horrocks, and M. Stavrou (eds.), Studies in Greek Syntax, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  10. Anagnostopoulou, Elena and Martin Evaerert: 1996, ‘Asymmetries in Binding: Configurational and Thematic Effects on Anaphora’, GLOW Newsletter 36, 14–15.Google Scholar
  11. Aoun, Joseph, Elabbas Benmamoun and Dominique Sportiche: 1994, ‘Agreement, Word Order and Conjunction in Some Varieties of Arabic’, Linguistic Inquiry 25, 195–220.Google Scholar
  12. Baker, Mark: 1996, The Polysynthesis Parameter, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Baker, Mark, Kyle Johnson and Ian Roberts: 1989, ‘Passive Arguments Raised’, Linguistic Inquiry 20, 219–251.Google Scholar
  14. Barbosa, Pilar: 1994, ‘A New Look at the Null Subject Parameter’, paper presented at CONSOLE III, Venice.Google Scholar
  15. Barbosa, Pilar: 1997, ‘Subject Positions in the Null Subject Languages’, Seminarios de Linguistica 1, 39–63.Google Scholar
  16. Belletti, Adriana: 1988, ‘The Case of Unaccusatives’, Linguistic Inqutry 19, 1–34.Google Scholar
  17. Belletti, Adriana: 1990, Generalized Verb Movement: Aspects of Verb Syntax, Rosenberg and Selier, Torino.Google Scholar
  18. Benmamoun, Elabbas: 1996, ‘Spec-Head Agreement and Overt Case in Arabic’, unpublished manuscript, SOAS.Google Scholar
  19. Bittner, Maria and Ken Hale: 1996, ‘The Structural Determination of Case and Agreement’, Linquistic Inquiry 27, 1–68.Google Scholar
  20. Bobaljik, Jonathan and Andrew Carnie: 1992, ‘A Minimalist Approach to Some Problems of Irish Word Order’, unpublished manuscript, MIT.Google Scholar
  21. Bobaljik, Jonathan and Dianne Jonas: 1996, ‘Subject Positions and the Role of TP’, Linguistic Inquiry 27, 195–236.Google Scholar
  22. Borer, Hagit: 1984, Parametric Synwx, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  23. Borer, Hagit: 1994, ‘The Projection of Arguments’, unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Google Scholar
  24. Borer, Hagit: 1995, ‘The Ups and Downs of Hebrew Verb Movement’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 13, 527–606.Google Scholar
  25. Brandi, Luciana and Patrizia Cordin: 1989, ‘Two Italian Dialects and the Null Subject Parameter’, in O. Jaeggli and K. Safir (eds.), The Null Subject Parameter, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 111–142.Google Scholar
  26. Branigan, Phil: 1992, Subjects and Complementizers, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  27. Bresnan, Joan and Joni Kanerva: 1989, ‘Locative Inversion in Chichewa: A Case Study of Factorization in Grammar’, Linguistic Inquiry 20, 1–50.Google Scholar
  28. Burzio, Luigi: 1981, Intransitive Verbs and Italian Auxiliaries, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  29. Burzio, Luigi: 1986, Italian Syntax, Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  30. Canac-Marquis, Rejan: 1991, ‘On the Obligatory Character of Inversion in Spanish’, Proceedings of WCCFL 10, 309–318.Google Scholar
  31. Cardinaletti, Anna: 1994, ‘Subject Positions’, Gen GenP 2, 64–78.Google Scholar
  32. Cardinaletti, Anna: 1995, ‘Subjects and Clause Structure’, to appear in L. Haegeman (ed.), The New Comparative Syntax, Longman, London.Google Scholar
  33. Cardinaletti, Anna and Michal Starke: 1995, ‘The Typology of Structural Deficiency: On the Three Grammatical Classes’, FAS Papers in Linguistics 1, 1–55.Google Scholar
  34. Carnie, Andrew: 1995, Non-verbal Predication and Head-Movement, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  35. Chomsky, Noam: 1980, ‘On Binding’, Linguistic Inquiry 11, 1–46.Google Scholar
  36. Chomsky, Noam: 1981, Lectures on Government and Binding, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  37. Chomsky, Noam: 1986, Barriers, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  38. Chomsky, Noam: 1993, ‘A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory’, in K. Hale and S. Keyser (eds.), The View from Building 20, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 1–52.Google Scholar
  39. Chomsky, Noam: 1995, The Minimalist Program, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  40. Chomsky, Noam and Howard Lasnik: 1993, ‘Principles and Parameters Theory’, in J. Jacobs, A. von Stechow, W. Sternefeld and T. Vennemann (eds.), Syntax: An International Handbook of Contemporary Research, de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 506–569.Google Scholar
  41. Cinque, Guglielmo: 1982, ‘On the Theory of Relative Clauses and Markedness’, The Linguistic Review 1, 247–294.Google Scholar
  42. Cinque, Guglielmo: 1986, ‘Bare Quantifiers, Quantified NPs and the Notion of Operator at S-structure’, Rivista di Grammatica Generativa 11.Google Scholar
  43. Cinque, Guglielmo: 1990, Types of A'-Dependencies, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  44. Cinque, Guglielmo: 1995, ‘Adverbs and the Universal Hierarchy of Functional Projections’, GLOW Newsletter 34, 14–15.Google Scholar
  45. Cinque, Guglielmo: 1997, Adverbs and the Universal Hierarchy of Functional Projections, to appear, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  46. Collins, Chris: 1997, Local Economy, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  47. Collins, Chris and Phil Branigan: 1997, ‘Quotative Inversion’, Natural Languages and Linguistic Theory 17, 1–41.Google Scholar
  48. Conteras, Heles: 1991, ‘On the Position of Subjects’, in S. Rothstein (ed.), Perspectives on Phrase Structure: Heads and Licensing, Syntax and Semantics 25, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 63–79.Google Scholar
  49. Demirdache, Hamida: 1991, Resumptive Chains in Restrictive Relative, Appositives and Dislocation Structures, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  50. den Besten, Hans: 1977, ‘On the Interaction of Root Transformations and Lexical Deletive Rules’, published 1981 in Groninger Arbeiten zur germanistischen Linguistik 20, 1–78.Google Scholar
  51. den Dikken, Marcel: 1995, Particles: On the Syntax of Verb-Particle, Triadic and Causative Constructions, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Déprez, Viviane: 1990, ‘Two ways of moving the verb in French’, MIT Working Papers in Linguistics 13, 27–46.Google Scholar
  53. Diesing, Molly: 1992, Indefinites, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  54. Dobrovic-Sorin, Carmen: 1987, Syntax du Roumain, unpublished These de Doctorat d'Etat, Universite de Paris 7.Google Scholar
  55. Dobrovie-Sorin, Carmen: 1993, The Syntax of Romanian: Comparative Studies in Romance, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  56. Doron, Edit and Caroline Heycock: 1996, ‘Filling and Licensing Multiple Specifiers’, unpublished manuscript, Hebrew University of Jerusalem and the University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  57. Drachman, Gaberell and Sila Klidi: 1992, ‘The Proper Treatment of Adverbial Questions in Greek: The Extended Minimal Structure Hypothesis’, Studies in Greek Linguistics 13, 371–390.Google Scholar
  58. Falk, Cecilia: 1993, Non-Referential Subjects in the History of Swedish, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Lund.Google Scholar
  59. Fanselow, Gisbert: 1996, ‘Minimal Links, phi-features, Case and theta-linking’, unpublished manuscript, Universität Potsdam.Google Scholar
  60. Fassi-Fehri, Abdelkader: 1993, Issues in the Structure of Arabic Clauses and Words, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  61. Fiengo, Robert and James Higginbotham: 1991, ‘Opacity in NP’, Linguistic Analysis 7, 395–421.Google Scholar
  62. Fox, Danny: 1994, ‘Quantifier Scope in VP Ellipsis’, unpublished manuscript, MIT.Google Scholar
  63. Frampton, John: 1995, ‘Expletive Insertion’, paper presented at the Workshop on the Role of Economy Principles in Linguistic Theory, Berlin, February 1995.Google Scholar
  64. Graff, Michel de: 1997, ‘Nominal Predication in Haitian and in Irish’, to appear in Proceedings of WCCFL XVI.Google Scholar
  65. Haeberli, Eric: 1997, ‘Expletives and Definite Subjects’, Proceedings of Console V, 93–108.Google Scholar
  66. Haider, Hubert: 1988, ‘Matching Projections’, in A. Cardinaletti, G. Cinque and G. Giusti (eds.), Constituent Structure, Foris, Dordrecht, pp. 101–123.Google Scholar
  67. Haik, Isabelle: 1984, ‘Indirect Binding’, Linguistic Inquiry 15, 185–223.Google Scholar
  68. Hale, Ken: 1989, ‘Incorporation and the Irish Synthetic Verb Forms’, unpublished manuscript, MIT.Google Scholar
  69. Hoekstra, Eric: 1994, ‘Agreement and the Nature of Speciliers’, Minimalism and Kayne's Antisymmetry Hypothesis, Groninger Arbeiten zur germanistischen Linguistik 37, 159–168.Google Scholar
  70. Hoekstra, Teun and Rene Mulder: 1990, ‘Unergatives as Copular Verbs: Locational and Existential Predication’, The Linguistic Review 7, 1–79.Google Scholar
  71. Holmberg, Anders: 1986, Word Order and Syntactic Features in the Scandinavian Languages and English, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Stockholm.Google Scholar
  72. Holmberg, Anders: 1997, ‘Phonological Feature Movement’, GLOW Newsletter 38, 30–31.Google Scholar
  73. Holmberg, Anders and Urpe Nikanne: 1997, ‘Explectives, Subjects and Topies in Finnish’, unpublished manuscript, University of Tromsø and University of Oslo.Google Scholar
  74. Horrocks, Geoff: 1994, ‘Subjects and Configurationality’, Journal of Linguistics 30, 81–109.Google Scholar
  75. Huybregts, Riny: 1996, ‘Minimalism, Typology and Language Universals’, paper presented at TIN 1996, Utrecht.Google Scholar
  76. Iatridou, Sabine: 1991, ‘Clitics and Island Effects’, unpublished manuscript, MIT.Google Scholar
  77. Iatridou, Sabine and Anthony Kroch: 1992, ‘On the Licensing of CP-recursion and Its Relevance to the Germanic Verb-second Phenomena’, Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 50, 1–24.Google Scholar
  78. Jaeggli, Osvaldo: 1982, Topics in Romance Syntax, Foris Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  79. Jaeggli, Osvaldo: 1986, ‘Passive’, Linguistic Inquiry 7, 587–633.Google Scholar
  80. Jaeggli, Osvaldo and Ken Safir (eds): 1989, The Null Subject Parameter, Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  81. Jelinek, Eloise: 1984, ‘Empty Categories, Case and Configurationality’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 2, 39–76.Google Scholar
  82. Johnson, Kyle: 1991, ‘Object Positions’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 9, 577–636.Google Scholar
  83. Jonas, Dianne: 1996, ‘Clause Structure, Expletives and Verb-movement’, in W. Abraham, S. Epstein, H. Thrainsson and J.-W. Zwart (eds.), Minimal Ideas, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 167–188.Google Scholar
  84. Jonas, Dianne and Jonathan Bobaljik: 1993, ‘Specs for Subjects’, MIT Working Papers 18, 59–98.Google Scholar
  85. Kayne, Richard: 1989/1995, ‘Agreement and Verb Movement in Three Varieties of English’, in H. Haider, S. Olsen and S. Vikner (eds.), Studies in Comparative Germanic Syntax. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 159–165.Google Scholar
  86. Kayne, Richard: 1993, ‘Toward a Modular Theory of Auxiliary Selection’, Studia Linguistica 47, 3–31.Google Scholar
  87. Kayne, Richard: 1994, The Antisymmetry of Syntax, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  88. Kayne, Richard and Jean-Yves Pollock: 1978, ‘Stylistic Inversion, Successive Cyclicity, and Move NP in French’, Linguistic Inquiry 9, 595–621.Google Scholar
  89. Keenan, Edward: 1987, ‘A Semantic Definition of Indefinite NP’, in E. Reuland and A. ter Meulen (eds.), The Representation of (In)definiteness, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 286–317.Google Scholar
  90. Koopman, Hilda and Dominique Sportiche: 1991, ‘The Position of Subjects’, Lingua 85, 211–258.Google Scholar
  91. Koster, Jan and Eric Reuland (eds.): 1991, Long Distance Anaphora, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  92. Kratzer, Angelika: 1988, ‘Stage and Individual Level Predicates’, unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Google Scholar
  93. Lasnik, Howard: 1993, ‘Case and Expletives Revisited’, unpublished manuscript, University of Connecticut.Google Scholar
  94. Lasnik, Howard and Mamoru Saito: 1992, Move alpha, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  95. Levin, Beth and Malka Rappaport: 1995, Unaccusativity: At the Syntax-Lexical Semantics Interface, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  96. Longobardi, Giuseppe: 1987, ‘Extraction from NP and the Proper Notion of Head Government’, in A. Giorgi and G. Longobardi (eds.), 1991, The Syntax of Noun Phrases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 57–112.Google Scholar
  97. Manzini, Rita and Anna Roussou: 1997, ‘A Minimalist Theory of A-movement and Control’, unpublished manuscript, University of Florence and University of Bangor.Google Scholar
  98. Martin, Roger: 1993, ‘On the Distribution and the Case Features of PRO’, paper presented at the LSA Winter Meeting.Google Scholar
  99. May, Robert: 1985, Logical Form, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  100. McCloskey, James: 1996a, ‘Subjects and Subject Positions in Irish’, in B. Borsley and Ian Roberts (eds.), The Syntax of Celtic Languages, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 241–283.Google Scholar
  101. McCloskey, James: 1996b, ‘On the Scope of Verb-Movement in Irish’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 14, 47–104.Google Scholar
  102. McCloskey, James and Ken Hale: 1984, ‘On the Syntax of Person Number Inflection in Modern Irish’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 2, 487–533.Google Scholar
  103. Montalbetti, Mario: 1984, After Binding: On the Interpretation of Pronouns, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  104. Moro, Andrea: 1997, The Raising of Predicates: Predicative Noun Phrases and the Theory of Clause Structure, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  105. Müller, Gereon: 1997, ‘Partial wh-movement and Optimality Theory’, The Linguistic Review 14, 249–306.Google Scholar
  106. Müller, Gereon and Wolfgang Sternefeld: 1993, ‘Improper Movement and Unambiguous Binding’, Linguistic Inquiry 24, 461–507.Google Scholar
  107. Ordoñez, Francisco: 1994, ‘Post-verbal Asymmetries in Spanish’, paper presented at the Vienna GLOW Colloquium.Google Scholar
  108. Ordoñez, Francisco and Evelina Trevino: 1995, ‘Los sujetos y objetos preverbalos en espanol’, paper presented at the 5th Colloquium on Generative Grammar, Coruña, Spain.Google Scholar
  109. Ouhalla, Jamal: 1988, The Syntax of Head Movement: A Case Study of Berber, unpublished Ph.D., dissertation, University College London.Google Scholar
  110. Ouhalla, Jamal: 1994, ‘The Syntactic Representation of Arguments’, unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  111. Philippaki-Warburton Irene: 1985, ‘Word Order in Modern Greek’, Transactions of the Philological Society, 113–143.Google Scholar
  112. Philippaki-Warburton, Irene: 1987, ‘The Theory of Empty Categories and the pro-drop Parameter in Modern Greek’, Journal of Linguistics 23, 289–318.Google Scholar
  113. Philippaki-Warburton, Irene: 1989, ‘Subjects in English and in Greek’, unpublished manuscript, University of Reading.Google Scholar
  114. Platzack, Christer: 1986, ‘COMP, INFL, and Germanic Word Order’, in L. Hellan and K. Christensen (eds.), Topics in Scandinavian Syntax, Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 185–234.Google Scholar
  115. Platzack, Christer and Anders Holmberg: 1989, ‘The Role of AGR and Finiteness’, Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax 43, 51–76.Google Scholar
  116. Pollock, Jean-Yves: 1996, ‘Eléments de Syntaxe du verbe dans les langues Germaniques et Romanes’, unpublished manuscript, Amicns.Google Scholar
  117. Reinhart, Tanya: 1982, ‘Pragmatics and Linguistics: An Analysis of Sentence Topics’, distributed by Indiana Linguistics Club, Bloomington, Indiana.Google Scholar
  118. Reinhart, Tanya: 1994, ‘Wh-in situ in the Framework of the Minimalist Program’, unpublished manuscript, University of Utrecht.Google Scholar
  119. Reinhart, Tanya and Eric Reuland: 1993, ‘Reflexivity’, Linguistic Inquiry 24, 657–720.Google Scholar
  120. Riemsdijk, van Henk and Edwin Williams: 1981, ‘NP-Structure’, The Linguistic Review 1, 171–217.Google Scholar
  121. Rivero, Maria-Luisa: 1988/1994, ‘Verb Movement and the Structure of IP in the Languages of the Balkans’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 12, 63–120.Google Scholar
  122. Rizzi, Luigi: 1980, ‘Negation, wh-movement and the Null Subject Parameter’, paper read at the 5th GLOW Colloquium.Google Scholar
  123. Rizzi, Luigi: 1982, Issues in Italian Syntax, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  124. Rizzi, Luigi: 1986, ‘Null Objects in Italian and the Theory of pro’, Linguistic Inquiry 17, 501–558.Google Scholar
  125. Rizzi, Luigi, 1990, Relativized Minimality, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  126. Rizzi, Luigi: 1991, ‘Residual Verb-Second and the wh-criterion’, Technical Reports in Formal and Computational Linguistics 2, Université de Génève.Google Scholar
  127. Rizzi, Luigi and Ian Roberts: 1989, ‘Complex Inversion in French’, Probus 1, 1–30.Google Scholar
  128. Roberts, Ian: 1993, Verbs and Diachronic Syntax, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  129. Roberts, Ian and Ur Shlonsky: 1994, ‘Pronominal Enclisis and VSO Languages’, GLOW Newsletter 32, 50–51.Google Scholar
  130. Rohrbacher, Bernhard: 1994, The Germanic Languages and the Full Paradigm: A Theory of V to I Raising, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Google Scholar
  131. Rouveret, Alain: 1990, ‘X′-theory, Minimality and Barrierhood in Welsh’, in R. Hendrick (ed.), The Syntax of Modern Celtic Languages, Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 27–80.Google Scholar
  132. Rouveret, Alain: 1994, Syntaxe du Gallois: Principes généraux et typologie, CNRS Editions, Paris.Google Scholar
  133. Safir, Ken: 1985, Synctactic Chains, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  134. Sauerland, Ulrich: 1997, ‘Scope Freezing’, to appear in the Proceedings of NELS 28 Google Scholar
  135. Sigurðsson, Halldór: 1989, Verbal Syntax and Case in Icelandic: A Comparative GB Approach, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Lund.Google Scholar
  136. Solà, Jaume: 1992, Agreement and Subjects, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Universität Autonoma de Barcelona.Google Scholar
  137. Speas, Margaret: 1994, ‘Null Arguments in a Theory of Economy of Projection’, UMOP 17, 179–208.Google Scholar
  138. Speas, Margaret: 1995, ‘Economy, Agreement and the Representation of Null Arguments’, unpublished manuscript, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.Google Scholar
  139. Sportiche, Dominique: 1992, ‘Clitic Constructions’, unpublished manuscript, UCLA.Google Scholar
  140. Suñer, M.: 1988, ‘The Role of Agreement in Clitic Doubling Constructions’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 6, 391–434.Google Scholar
  141. Svenonius, Peter: 1996, ‘The Verb-Particle Alternation in the Scandinavian Languages’, unpublished manuscript, University of Tromsø.Google Scholar
  142. Taraldsen, Knut: 1978, ‘On the NIC, Vacuous Application and the that-trace Filter’, unpublished manuscript, MIT.Google Scholar
  143. Taraldsen, Knut: 1992, ‘Agreement as Pronoun Incorporation’, paper presented at the 1992 GLOW Colloquium.Google Scholar
  144. Terzi, Arhonto: 1997, ‘PRO and Null Case in Finite Clauses’, to appear in The Linguistic Review 14 (4).Google Scholar
  145. Torrego, Esther: 1984, ‘On Inversion in Spanish and Some of Its Effects’, Linguistic Inquiry 15, 103–129.Google Scholar
  146. Travis, Lisa: 1984, Parameters and Effects of Word Order Variation, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  147. Tsimpli, Ianthi-Maria: 1990 ‘The Clause Structure and Word Order of Modern Greek’, UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 2, 226–255.Google Scholar
  148. Vallduvi, Enric: 1992, ‘A Preverbal Landing Site for Quantificational Operators’, Catalan Working Papers 2, 319–343.Google Scholar
  149. Varlokosta, Spyridoula and Norbert Hornstein: 1993, ‘A Bound Pronoun in Modern Greek’, Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11, 175–195.Google Scholar
  150. Vikner, Sten: 1995, Verb Movement and Expletive Subjects in the Germanic Languages, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  151. Watanabe, Akira: 1996, Case Absorption and Wh-Agreement, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  152. Williams, Edwin: 1980, ‘Predication’, Linguistic Inquiry 11, 203–238.Google Scholar
  153. Williams, Edwin: 1994, Thematic Structure in Syntax, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  154. Zwart, C. Jan-Wouter: 1997, Morphosyntax of Verb Movement. A Minimalist Approach to Dutch Syntax, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  155. Zubizarreta, Maria-Luisa: 1992, ‘Word Order in Spanish and the Nature of Nominative Case’, unpublished manuscript, USC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Artemis Alexiadou
    • 1
  • Elena Anagnostopoulou
    • 2
  1. 1.Zentrum für Allgemeine SprachwissenschaftTypologie und UniversalienforschungBerlinGermany, e-mail
  2. 2.Department of PhilologyUniversity of Crete, Faculty of PhilosophyCreteGreece, e-mail

Personalised recommendations