Agroforestry Systems

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 3–34 | Cite as

Effect of shelter on temperate crops: a review to define research for Australian conditions

  • I. K. Nuberg
Article

Abstract

The fact that the shelter created by windbreaks can have a significant, positive effect on crop production is supported by eight decades of research from many countries around the world. Although the concept of planting windbreaks to enhance crop production has general currency in Australia, the practice is not as wide as it could be. This review of the last decade of windbreak literature defines the research needed to encourage wider utilisation of windbreak technology. After outlining the principal mechanisms behind the effect of shelter on temperate crops, the review discusses relevant literature of the past decade especially that from Australia. The main mechanisms discussed are: the protection of crops from physical damage; soil conservation; the direct augmentation of soil moisture; and the alteration of the crop energy balance and plant water relations. Also discussed are the elusiveness of the shelter effect, competition from windbreak trees, and the modelling of windbreak systems. Suggestions for future research in Australia include: quantifying the competition of various windbreak species and the effect of root pruning on both crop and tree; a model of crop energy and water relations at the tree-crop interface; an economic model and a farmer-oriented decision support tool.

competition crop yield microclimate modelling water use windbreaks 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldwin CS (1988) The influence of field windbreaks on vegetable and specialty crops. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 22–23: 191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Banzhaf J, Leihner DE, Buerkert A and Serafini PG (1992) Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: I. Wind speed, evaporation, and wind erosion. Agronomy Journal 84(6): 1056–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker GL, Hatfield JL and Wanjura DF (1985) Cotton phenology parameters affected by wind. Field Crops Research 12(1): 33–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basu PK, Kapoor KS, Nath S and Banerjee SK (1987) Allelopathic influence: an assessment on the response of agricultural crops growing near Eucalyptus tereticornis. Indian Journal of Forestry 10(4): 267–271Google Scholar
  5. Bates CG (1911) Windbreaks: their influence and value. US Forest Service Bull. 86 100 pp. cited in Kort J (1988)Google Scholar
  6. Beale P (1997) Windbreaks for production and sustainability. In: Proceedings from Farming Systems Developments 1997. Workshop held at Waite Campus, University of Adelaide, South Australia, March 18–20Google Scholar
  7. Ben Salah H, Beji MA and Salah H Ben (1989) Effects of windbreak protection on faba bean production. Annales de l'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie. Numero Special, 125–137 8 ref. (in French)Google Scholar
  8. Benzarti J (1989) Influence of windbreaks on forage production. Annales de l'Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique de Tunisie Numero Special, 138–145 (in French)Google Scholar
  9. Bethenod O, Katerji N, Cellier P and Quetin P (1991) Determination of carbon balance of a potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop by a simplified aerodynamic method. Photosynthetica 25(2): 231–239 (in French)Google Scholar
  10. Bicknell D (1991) In Proceedings from A National Australian Conference on The Role of Trees in Sustainable Agriculture held at Albury, Victoria, Australia, in October 1991. Also in Bird PR et al. (1992)Google Scholar
  11. Bird PR (1988) Sheltering the farm: an economic assessment of trees. Rural Quarterly 3(4): 12–13Google Scholar
  12. Bird PR, Bicknell D, Bulman PA et al. (1992) The role of shelter in Australia for protecting soils, plants and livestock Agroforestry Systems 20: 59–86Google Scholar
  13. Bulir P (1992) Effects of shelterbelts on winter wheat yields, pp 163–175. Zadradnictvi (in Czech)Google Scholar
  14. Bradley RG and Crout NMJ (1992) PARCH: a user guide. Sutton. Bonnington, LeicesterGoogle Scholar
  15. Brandle JR, Hintz DL and Sturrock JW (eds) (1988) Windbreak Technology. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, 598 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Brandle JR Johnson BB and Akeson T (1992) Field windbreaks: are they economical? Journal of Production Agriculture 5(3): 393–398Google Scholar
  17. Brenner AJ, Jarvis PG and Vanderbelt RJ (1995a) Windbreak-crop interactions in the Sahel: 1 Dependence of shelter on field conditions. Agricultural & Forest Meteorology 75(4): 215–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brenner AJ, Jarvis PG and Vanderbelt RJ (1995b) Tree-crop interactions in a Sahelian windbreak system. 2 Growth response of millet in shelter. Agricultural & Forest Meteorology 75(4): 235–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brenner AJ (1996) Microclimatic modifications in agroforestry. In: Ong CK and Huxley P (eds) Tree-Crop Interactions: A Physiological Approach. CAB International/ICRAFGoogle Scholar
  20. Bulman P (1991) TREE$PLAN: a model to compare farm tree designs to South Australia. Agricultural Systems and Information Technology Newsletter, pp 16–18. Special issue: Agroforestry and Forestry Vol. 3, No.3, December 1991. Bureau of Rural ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  21. Burke S (1991) The effect of shelterbelts on crop yields at Rutherglen, Victoria. In: Proceedings from A National Australian Conference on The Role of Trees in Sustainable Agriculture held at Albury, Victoria, Australia, in October 1991. Also in Bird PR et al. (1992)Google Scholar
  22. Caborn JM (1954) Shelterbelts and microclimates Bull. 29. For Comm, London, 137 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Campbell CA (1993) Can Australian farming systems be more sylvan? Agroforestry Systems 22: 17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chaput LJ and Tuskan GA (1990) Field windbreak management and its effect on adjacent crop yield. North Dakota Farm Research 48(2): 26–28Google Scholar
  25. Davis JE and Norman JM (1988) Effects of shelter on plant water use. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 22/23: 393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fazli S (1990) Financial analysis of selected shelterbelt systems in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Forestry 40(3): 247–252Google Scholar
  27. Feddes RA (1988) Agrometeorological aspects of emergence, water use, growth and dry matter yield of potatoes. Acta Horticulturae 214: 45–52Google Scholar
  28. French RJ and Schultz (1984) Water use efficiency of wheat in a Mediterranean-type environment. Australian Journal of Agric. Research 35: 743–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ghulam A, Munir A, Shahid R and Babar K (1990) Effect of trees on the yield of wheat crop. Agroforestry Systems 11(1): 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gladun G, Opalev A and Gusak AY (1988) The protective effect of shelterbelts on the survival of winter crops during the 1985/86 winter in the Kharkov region. Lesovodstvo i Agrolesomelioratsiya No. 76, 36–39 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. Grace J (1977) Plant Response to Wind. Academic Press, London, 204 ppGoogle Scholar
  32. Grace J (1988a) Plant response to wind. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 22/23: 71–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Grace J (1988b) Temperature as a determinant of plant productivity. In: Long SP and Woodward FI (eds) Plants and Temperature, pp 91–108 Society of Experimental Botany, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  34. Hawke M and Gillingham A (1996) Nutrient transfer by livestock adjacent to managed and unmanaged shelterbelts. New Zealand Tree Grower 17(1): 35–37Google Scholar
  35. Haas CA (1995) Dispersal and use of corridors by birds in wooded patches on agricultural landscape. Conservation Biology 9(4): 845–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hough and Cooper (1988) The effects of shelter for cereal crops in an exposed area of Cleveland, North-East England. Soil Use and Management 4(1): 19–22Google Scholar
  37. Huxley PA, Pinney A, Akunda E and Muraya P (1994) A tree/crop interface orientation experiment with a Grevillea robusta hedgerow and maize. Agroforestry Systems 26(1): 23–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ilyasov YI (1988) Agricultural productivity of the forest-agrarian landscape. Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki No. 5, 112–114 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  39. Ilyasov YI and Nerubashchenko AV (1990) The water regime of soil in a dry steppe landscape improved by shelterbelt planting. Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki No. 4, 79–82 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  40. Ivonin VM and Zasoba VV (1990) Influence of plantations on the yields of agricultural crops. Izvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii, Lesnoi Zhurnal No. 1: 129–132 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Jackson JE (1989) Tree and crop selection and management to optimize overall system productivity especially light utilisation in agroforestry. In: Reifsnyder WS and Darnhofer TO (eds) Meteorology and Agroforestry, pp 163–173. ICRAF, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  42. Jonsson P (1994) Influence of shelter on soil sorting by wind erosion: a case study. Catena 22(1): 35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kelleher FM (1984) Climate and crop distribution. In: Pratley JE (ed) Principles of Field Crop Production. Sydney, Sydney University PressGoogle Scholar
  44. Kohli RK, Daljit S and Verma RC (1990) Influence of eucalypt shelterbelt on winter season agroecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 33(1): 23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kong LX, Zhang JL, Ni JD et al. (1989) Dynamic effect of Paulownia on wheat growth and development and soil water and salt contents. Journal of Ecology (China) 8(1): 1–4 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  46. Kort J (1988) Benefits of windbreaks to field and forage crops. Agriculture-Ecosystems and Environment 22/23: 165–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Korwar GR and Radder GD (1994) Influence of root pruning and cutting interval of leucaena hedgerows on performance of alley cropped rabi sorghum Agroforestry Systems 25(2): 95–109Google Scholar
  48. Kozmenko (1989) Evaluating the effectiveness of shelterbelts in the framework of integrated territorial nature-conservation schemes, pp 56–58. Lesnoe Knozyaistvo (in Russian)Google Scholar
  49. Lamers JPA, Michels K and Vanderbeldt RJ (1994) Trees and windbreaks in the Sahel: establishment, growth, nutritive and calorific values. Agroforestry Systems 26(3): 171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. SP, Lee GS, Choi DW et al. (1987) Studies on methods of reducing cold wind damage of rice plants by installation of windbreak nets in the eastern coastal area. Korean Journal of Crop Science 32(2): 163–172 (in Korean)Google Scholar
  51. Lefroy T and Scott P (1994) Alley farming: new vision for Western Australian farmland. Western Australia Journal of Agriculture 35: 119–126Google Scholar
  52. Leihner DE, Buerkert A, Banzhaf J and Serafini PG (1993) Soil tillage and windbreak effects on millet and cowpea: II. Dry matter and grain yield. Agronomy Journal 85(2): 400–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leys J, Packer S and Butler P (1997) Wind erosion research at Keith in the Upper South East of South Australia. Technical Report of The New South Wales Department of Land and Water ConservationGoogle Scholar
  54. Li DW (1985) Tentative evaluation of the results in yield increase from shelterbelts with an agricultural effects index. Forest Science and Technology, Linye Keji-Tongxun No. 2: 14–15 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  55. Loane B (1991) FARMTREE: a model for determining the economics of agroforestry in Victoria, Australia. In: Agricultural Systems and Information Technology Newsletter, pp 15–16. Special issue: Agroforestry and Forestry, Vol. 3, No.3, December 1991, Bureau of Rural ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  56. Malik RS and Sharma SK (1990) Moisture extraction and crop yield as a function of distance from a row of Eucalyptus tereticornis. Agroforestry Systems 12(2): 187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marshall JK (1967) The effect of shelter on the productivity of grasslands and field crops. Field Crop Abstracts 20(1): 1–14Google Scholar
  58. McCann IR, Stark JC and King BA (1992) Evaluation and interpretation of the crop water stress index for well-watered potatoes. American Potato Journal 69(12): 831–841Google Scholar
  59. McConkey BG, Zentner RP and Nicholaichuk W (1990) Perennial grass windbreaks for continuous wheat production on the Canadian prairies. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 45(4): 482–485Google Scholar
  60. McMartin W, Frank AB and Heintz RH (1974) Economics of shelterbelt influence on wheat yields in North Dakota. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 29(2): 87–91Google Scholar
  61. McNaughton KG (1988) Effect of windbreaks on turbulent transport and micro climate. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 22/23: 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mertia RS, Muthana KD and Mahander-Singh (1988) Impact of shelterbelts on pearl millet crop. Annals of Arid Zone 27(3/4): 305–307Google Scholar
  63. Messing I and Noureddine A (1991) Effect of windbreaks on wind velocity, evapo-transpiration and yield of irrigated crops in the arid zone. Sidi Bouzid, central Tunisia. Rural Development Studies, No. 30, 40 pp (in French)Google Scholar
  64. Miloserdov NM (1985) The effect of shelterbelts on the yield of spring barley. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo, No. 8, 39–42 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  65. Miloserdov NM (1986) Effectiveness of shelterbelts for agricultural soil protection. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo, No. 7, 31–37 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  66. Miloserdov NM (1989) Shelterbelts and the yield of winter barley. Lesnoe Khozyaistvo, No. 7, 39–41 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  67. Mozheiko GA and Semyakin VA (1984) Effect of protective shelterbelts and type of soil cultivation on the yield of agricultural crops in southern Ukraine. Lesovodstvo i Agrolesomelioratsiya, No. 69, 23–28 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  68. Muetzelfeldt RI and Sinclair FL (1993) Ecological modelling of agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Abstracts 6(4): 207–247Google Scholar
  69. Nikolajenko W (1985) Influence of shelter belts on agricultural yields. Internationale Zeitschrift der Landwirtschaft, pp 512–514 ( in German)Google Scholar
  70. Ong CK, Corlett JE, Singh RP and Black CR (1991) Above and below ground interactions in agroforestry systems. In: PG Jarvis (ed) Agroforestry: Principles and Practice, pp 45–58. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  71. Ong CK, Black CR, Marshall FM and Corlett JE (1996) Principles of resource capture and utilisation of light and water. In: Ong CK and Huxley P (eds) Tree-Crop Interactions, A Physiological Approach, pp 73–158. CAB International/ICRAFGoogle Scholar
  72. Onyewoto L and Stigter C (1995) Eucalyptus: its reputation and its roots. Agroforestry Today 7(1): 6–8Google Scholar
  73. Pelton W (1976) Windbreak studies on the Canadian prairie. In: Tinus RW (ed) Shelterbelts on the Great Plains, pp 64–68. Proceedings of the Symposium of the Great Plains Agric Council. Denver, Colorado, April 20–22, (1976) GPAC Pub No. 78Google Scholar
  74. Pretzschel M, Bohme G and Krause H (1991) Effects of shelterbelts on crop yield. Feldwirtschaft 32(5): 229–231 (in German)Google Scholar
  75. Puri S, Singh S and Kumar A (1994) Growth and productivity of crops in association with an Acacia nilotica tree belt. Special issue: Acacia and Prosopis. Journal of Arid Environments 27(1): 37–48Google Scholar
  76. Puri S, Bangarwa KS and Singh S (1995) Influence of multipurpose trees on agricultural crops in arid regions of Haryana, India. Journal of Arid Environments 30(4): 441–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rasmussen SD and Shapiro CA (1990) Effect of tree root-pruning adjacent to windbreaks on corn and soybeans. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 45(5): 571–575Google Scholar
  78. Raupach M, McTainsh G and Leys J (1994) Estimates of dust mass in recent major Australian dust storms. Australian Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 7(3): 20–24 3Google Scholar
  79. Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (1996) Contribution of farm forestry to Australia: a quantitative assessment. Part of a three part agroforestry resource kit. RIRDC. Kingston, ACT, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  80. Scholten H (1988) Snow distribution on crop fields. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 22/23: 363–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schroth G (1995) Tree root characteristics as criteria for species selection and systems design in agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems 30(1–2): 125–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Shoshin VI, Cherevatyuk BV and Romanov IA (1988) The moisture supply of tree-enclosed fields under a cereal-fallow rotation in the dry steppe of western Siberia Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki No. 1: 80–84 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  83. Singh D and Kohli RK (1992) Reasons of poor under-floor vegetation of Eucalyptus. In: Tauro P and Narwal S (eds) Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Allelopathy in Agroecosystems (agriculture & forestry), pp 114–117. February 12–14, 1992, held at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar 125 004, India, 1992Google Scholar
  84. Song ZM and Wei L (1991) The correlation between windbreak influenced climate and crop yield. In: Zhu ZH, Cai MT, Wang SJ and Jiang YX (eds) Agroforestry Systems in China, pp 21–115. Published jointly with the Chinese Academy of Forestry. Singapore; International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada), Regional Office for Southeast & East AsiaGoogle Scholar
  85. Srinivasalu and Jaganatham (1992) Microclimatic manipulation and performance of rainfed groundnut with crop shelterbelts. Madras Agricultural Journal 79(10): 587–589Google Scholar
  86. Sturrock JW Redcliff and Judd M (1988) cited in Bird PR (1988) Financial gains of trees on farms through shelter. In: Proc. International Forestry Conference for the Australian Bicentenary, Vol. 2 Australian Forest Development Institute, Albury-WodongaGoogle Scholar
  87. Sun D and Dickinson GR (1994) A case study of shelterbelt effect on potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield on the Atherton Tablelands in tropical north Australia. Agroforestry Systems 25(2): 141–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tejwani KG (1994) Agroforestry in India. Oxford & IBH Publ. New Delhi, 233 ppGoogle Scholar
  89. Thornley JHM and Johnson IR (1990) Plant and crop modelling: a mathematical approach to plant and crop physiology. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  90. Thue-Hansen V and Skjelvag AO (1987) The effects of shelter on climate and barley yield. Norsk Landbruksforskning 1(1): 23–30 (in Norwegian)Google Scholar
  91. Tkach LI (1986) Role of shelterbelts in extreme weather conditions. Lesovodstvo i Agrolesomelioratsiya No. 72, 68–71 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  92. Turner NC (1997) Further progress in crop water relations. Advances in Agronomy 58: 293–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Van Eimern J, Karschon R, Razumova LA and Robertson GW (1964) Windbreaks and shelterbelts. World Meteorology Organisation Tech. Note No. 59, 191 ppGoogle Scholar
  94. Van Noordwijk M, Spek LY and De Willigen P (1994) Proximal diameters as predictors of total root system size for fractal branching models: I. Theory. Plant and Soil 164: 107–118Google Scholar
  95. Van Noordwijk M and Purnomosidhi P (1995) Root architecture in relation to tree-soil-crop interactions and root pruning in agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems 30(1–2): 161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Van Noordwijk M (1996) Mulch and shade model for optimum alley-cropping design depending on soil fertility, Chap 3. In: Ong CK and Huxley P (eds) Tree-Crop Interactions, A Physiological Approach, pp 51–72. CAB International/ICRAFGoogle Scholar
  97. Van Noordwijk M Lawson G, Soumare A, Groot JJ and Hairiah K (1996) Root distribution of trees and crops: competition and/or complementarity, Chap 9. In: Ong CK and Huxley P (eds) Tree-Crop Interactions, A Physiological Approach, pp 319–364. CAB International/ ICRAFGoogle Scholar
  98. Waddington J and Steppuhn H (1995) Effects of Tall Wheatgrass windbreaks on hay production of three alfalfa varieties at a semiarid location in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 75(4): 877–881Google Scholar
  99. Wang YP and Jarvis PG (1990) Description and validation of an array model – MAESTRO. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 51(3–4): 257–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilson SM, Whitham JA, Bhati UN et al. (1995) Survey of trees on Australian farms: 1993–94, ABARE Research Report 95/7, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  101. Wu YY and Dalmacio RV (1991) Energy balance, water use and wheat yield in a Paulownia-wheat intercropped field. In: Zhu ZH et al. (eds) Agroforestry Systems in China, pp 54–65. CAF/IRDC, 1991Google Scholar
  102. Young A and Muraya P (1991) SCUAF: soil changes under agroforestry. Agricultural Systems and Information Technology Newsletter 3: 20–23Google Scholar
  103. Zevin GN and Labaznikov SB (1990) Increasing the productivity of grasslands Sibirskii Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, No. 6, 30–35, 130Google Scholar
  104. Zhang HH and Song ZM (1991) An evaluation study on a windbreak agricultural field. In: Zhu ZH et al. (eds) Agroforestry Systems in China, pp 50–53. CAF/IRDCGoogle Scholar
  105. Zhang H, Brandle JR, Meyer GE and Hodges L (1995) A model to evaluate windbreak protection efficiency. Agroforestry Systems 29(3): 191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zhang H and Brandle JR (1996) Windbreak effect on biomass and grain mass accumulation of corn: a modeling approach. Agronomy Journal 88: 607–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. K. Nuberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Farming SystemsUniversity of AdelaideSouth AustraliaAustralia

Personalised recommendations