Breast Cancer Research and Treatment

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 219–233

Paracrine/autocrine regulation of breast cancer by the insulin-like growth factors

  • Audrey A. Rasmussen
  • Kevin J. Cullen

DOI: 10.1023/A:1005903000777

Cite this article as:
Rasmussen, A.A. & Cullen, K.J. Breast Cancer Res Treat (1998) 47: 219. doi:10.1023/A:1005903000777


Local environmental signals regulate the growth and development of both normal and malignant breast epithelium. Members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family likely influence both of these processes. The localization of IGF2 to stroma specifically surrounding malignant breast epithelium indicates that this growth factor may play a critical role in the genesis or maintenance of this transformed phenotype. Recent studies have sought to understand the mechanism by which IGF2 expressing fibroblasts are localized to the periphery of malignant breast cancer cells. In addition, the consequences of the expression of IGF-signaling components likely expand beyond their direct effects on mitogenesis. Indirect effects predominantly associated with the IGF2 receptor could also influence the invasive potential of breast tumor cells.

breast cancer estrogen insulin-like growth factors mannose 6-phosphate/IGF2 receptor paracrine factors stromal cells 

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Audrey A. Rasmussen
    • 1
  • Kevin J. Cullen
    • 1
  1. 1.Vincent T. Lombardi Cancer Research CenterGeorgetown University Medical CenterWashington, DCUSA

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