Biogeochemistry

, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp 37–55 | Cite as

The biogeochemistry of phosphorus after the first century of soil development on Rakata Island, Krakatau, Indonesia

  • William H. Schlesinger
  • L.A. Bruijnzeel
  • Mark B. Bush
  • Emily M. Klein
  • Kimberly A. Mace
  • Jane A. Raikes
  • R.J. Whittaker
Article

Abstract

This study examined the accumulation of organic carbon (C) and fractions ofsoil phosphorus (P) in soils developing in volcanic ash deposited in the1883 eruption of Krakatau. Organic C has accumulated at rates of 45 to 127g/m2/yr during 110 years of soil development, resulting inprofiles with as much as 14 kgC/m2. Most soil P is found inthe HCl-extractable forms, representing apatite. A loss of HCl-extractableP from the surface horizons is associated with a marked accumulation ofNaOH-extractable organic P bound to Al. A bioassay with hill rice suggeststhat P is limiting to plant growth in these soils, perhaps as a result ofthe rapid accumulation of P in organic forms.

Krakatau organic carbon soil phosphorus volcanic ash 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams MM & Jarrell WM (1992) Bioavailability index for phosphorus using ion exchange resin impregnated membranes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56: 1532–1537Google Scholar
  2. Blakemore LC (1984) An alternative field office method for phosphate retention. New Zealand Journal of Science 27: 409–411Google Scholar
  3. Bockheim JG (1980) Solution and use of chronofunctions in studying soil development. Geoderma 24: 71–85Google Scholar
  4. Boring LR, Swank WT Waide JB & Henderson GS (1988) Sources, fates, and impacts of nitrogen inputs to terrestrial ecosystems: Review and synthesis. Biogeochemistry 6: 119–159Google Scholar
  5. Bruijnzeel LA (1989) Nutrient content of bulk precipitation in south central Java, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 5: 187–202Google Scholar
  6. Bush MB, Whittaker RJ & Partomiharjo T (1992) Forest development on Rakata, Panjang and Sertung: Comtemporary dynamics (1979–1989). GeoJournal 28: 185–199Google Scholar
  7. Crews TE, Kitayama K, Fownes JH, Riley RH, Herbert DA, Mueller-Dombois D & Vitousek PM (1995) Changes in soil phosphorus fractions and ecosystem dynamics across a long chronosequence in Hawaii. Ecology 76: 1407–1424Google Scholar
  8. Crocker RL & Dickson, BA (1957) Soil development on the recessional moraines of the Herbert and Mendenhall Glaciers, southeastern Alaska. Journal of Ecology 45: 169–185Google Scholar
  9. Cross AF & Schlesinger WH (1995) A literature review and evaluation of the Hedley fractionation: Applications to the biogeochemical cycle of soil phosphorus in natural ecosystems. Geoderma 64: 197–214Google Scholar
  10. Ernst A (1908) The New Flora of the Volcanic Island of Krakatau. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Gardner LR (1990) The role of rock weathering in the phosphorus budget of terrestrial watersheds. Biogeochemistry 11: 97–110Google Scholar
  12. Garten CT & Van Miegroet H (1994) Relationships between soil nitrogen dynamics and natural 15N abundance in plant foliage from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 1636–1645Google Scholar
  13. Hafkenscheid RLLJ (1994) Hydrological observations in rain forests of contrasting stature on Gunung Rakata (Krakatau), Indonesia, with special reference to the “Massenerhebung” effect. Master of Science Thesis, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  14. Hardjowigeno S (1992) The development and nature of soils on Rakata. GeoJournal 28: 131–138Google Scholar
  15. Jenny H (1941) Factors of Soil Formation. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Kaiser K & Zech W (1996) Defects in estimation of aluminum in humus complexes of podzolic soils by pyrophosphate extraction. Soil Science 161: 452–458Google Scholar
  17. Klein EM, Langmuir CH & Staudigel H (1991) Geochemistry of basalts from the Southeast Indian Ridge, 115° N–138° E. Journal of Geophysical Research 96: 2089–2107Google Scholar
  18. McKeague JA & Day JH (1966) Dithionite and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al as aids in differentiating various classes of soil. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 46: 13–22Google Scholar
  19. McKeague JA, Brydon JE & Miles NM (1971) Differentiation of forms of extractable iron and aluminum in soils. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 35: 33–38Google Scholar
  20. Murphy J & Riley J (1962) A modified single solution for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 27: 31–36Google Scholar
  21. Negrín MA, Gonzalez-Carcedo S & Hernández-Moreno JM (1995) P fractionation in sodium bicarbonate extracts of Andic soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 27: 761–766Google Scholar
  22. Ognalaga M, Frossard E & Thomas F (1994) Glucose-1-phosphate andmyo-inositol hexaphosphate adsorption mechanisms on goethite. Soil Science Society of America Journal 58: 332–337Google Scholar
  23. Olsson M & Melkerud P-A (1989) Chemical and mineralogical changes during genesis of a podzol from till in southern Sweden. Geoderma 45: 267–287Google Scholar
  24. Paré D & Bernier B (1989) Origin of the phosphorus deficiency observed in declining sugar maple stands in the Quebec Appalachians. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19: 24–34Google Scholar
  25. Parfitt RL & Kimble JM (1989) Conditions for formation of allophane in soils. Soil Science Society America Journal 53: 971–977Google Scholar
  26. Piccolo MC, Neill C, Melillo JM, Cerri CC & Steudler PA (1996) 15N natural abundance in forest and pasture soils of the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Plant and Soil 182: 249–258Google Scholar
  27. Post WM, Emanuel WR, Zinke PJ & Stangenberger AG (1982) Soil carbon pools and world life zones. Nature 298: 156–159Google Scholar
  28. Rychert R, Skujins J, Sorensen D & Porcella D (1978) Nitrogen fixation by lichens and free-living microorganisms in deserts. In: West NE & Skujins J (Eds) Nitrogen in Desert Ecosystems (pp 20–30). Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  29. Schlesinger WH (1977) Carbon balance in terrestrial detritus. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 8: 51–81Google Scholar
  30. Schlesinger WH (1990) Evidence from chronosequence studies for a low carbon-storage potential of soils. Nature 348: 232–234Google Scholar
  31. Schlesinger WH (1997) Biogeochemistry: An analysis of global change. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  32. Shinagawa A, Miyauchi N, Higashi T, Djuwansah MR & Sule A (1986a) The soils of Krakatau islands. I. Field observation. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University 22: 101–130Google Scholar
  33. Shinagawa A, Miyauchi N, Higashi T, Djuwansah MR & Sule A (1986b) The soils of Krakatau islands. II. Particle size distribution and chemical properties of the soils. Memoirs of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kagoshima University 22: 131–155Google Scholar
  34. Shinagawa A, Miyauchi N & Higashi T (1992) Cumulic soils on Rakata, Sertung and Panjang (Krakatau Is.) and properties of each solum. GeoJournal 28: 139–151Google Scholar
  35. Shoji S, Nanzyo M & Dahlgren RA (1993a) Volcanic Ash Soils. Elsevier Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  36. Shoji S, Nanzyo M, Shirato Y & Ito T (1993b) Chemical kinetics of weathering in young Andisols from northeastern Japan using soil age normalized to 10 °C. Soil Science 155: 53–60Google Scholar
  37. Shoji S, Nanzyo M, Dahlgren RA & Quantin P (1996) Evaluation and proposed revisions of criteria for Andosols in the world reference base for soil resources. Soil Science 161: 604–615Google Scholar
  38. Singleton GA & Lavkulich LM (1987) Phosphorus transformations in a soil chronosequence, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 67: 787–793Google Scholar
  39. Sollins P, Spycher G & Topik C (1983) Processes of soil organic-matter accretion at a mudflow chronosequence, Mt. Shasta, California. Ecology 64: 1273–1282Google Scholar
  40. Tezuka Y (1961) Development of vegetation in relation to soil formation in the volcanic island of Oshima, Izu, Japan. Japanese Journal of Botany 17: 371–402Google Scholar
  41. Thornton I (1996) Krakatau. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  42. Tiessen H & Moir JO (1993) Characterization of available P by sequential extraction. In: Carter MR (Ed) Soil Sampling and Methods of Analysis (pp 75–86). Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  43. Vitousek PM, Van Cleve K, Balakrishnan N & Mueller-Dombois D (1983) Soil development and nitrogen turnover in montane rainforest soils in Hawai'i. Biotropica l5: 268–274Google Scholar
  44. Vitousek PM, Walker LR, Whiteaker LD & Matson PA (1993) Nutrient limitations to plant growth during primary succession in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Biogeochemistry 23: 197–215Google Scholar
  45. Vitousek PM & Farrington H (1997) Nutrient limitation and soil development: Experimental test of a biogeochemical theory. Biogeochemistry 37: 63–75Google Scholar
  46. Wada K (1985) The distinctive properties of Andisols. Advances in Soil Science 2: 173–229Google Scholar
  47. Walker AL (1983) The effects of magnetite on oxalate-and dithionite-extractable iron. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47: 1022–1026Google Scholar
  48. Walker TW & Syers JK (1976) The fate of phosphorus during pedogenesis. Geoderma 15: l–19Google Scholar
  49. Whittaker RJ, Bush MB & Richards K (1989) Plant recolonization and vegetation succession on the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia. Ecological Monographs 59: 59–123Google Scholar
  50. Whittaker RJ, Walden J & Hill J (1992) Post-1983 ash fall on Panjang and Sertung and its ecological impact. GeoJournal 28: 153–171Google Scholar
  51. Yanai RD (1992) Phosphorus budget of a 70-year-old northern hardwood forest. Biogeochemistry 17: 1–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Schlesinger
    • 1
    • 2
  • L.A. Bruijnzeel
    • 3
  • Mark B. Bush
    • 4
  • Emily M. Klein
    • 2
  • Kimberly A. Mace
    • 1
  • Jane A. Raikes
    • 2
  • R.J. Whittaker
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of BotanyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Nicholas School of the EnvironmentDuke UniversityThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Faculty of Earth SciencesVrije UniversiteitHV AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Department of Biological SciencesFlorida Institute of TechnologyMelbourneUSA
  5. 5.School of GeographyUniversity of OxfordOxfordU.K

Personalised recommendations