Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 53, Issue 2, pp 279–295 | Cite as

Deposition Monitoring in Europe

  • J. W. Erisman
  • M. G. Mennen
  • D. Fowler
  • C. R. Flechard
  • G. Spindler
  • A. Grüner
  • J. H. Duyzer
  • W. Ruigrok
  • G. P. Wyers


A monitoring station for atmospheric deposition was designed and constructed. Three such stations were applied in a pilot project for a year on three sites (Speulder forest in The Netherlands, Auchencorth in Scotland and Melpitz in Germany) in different regions in Europe to estimate local inputs and to validate deposition models which are currently used or developed to estimate ecosystem specific deposition in Europe. Fluxes at Auchencorth Moss are lowest for all components, except for those much influenced by the sea as a source. As Melpitz is located far away from seas, these components are lowest at this site. Wet deposition is the dominant source of input at Auchencorth, whereas at Speulder forest, through its roughness and pollution climate, dry deposition is dominant. At this site dry deposition velocities are highest. Melpitz is a polluted site. Particularly sulphur deposition is high. It is recommended to equip several locations in Europe with intensive deposition monitoring methods. Such a network will be an extension of existing monitoring programmes on air pollution, such as that run by Eurepean Monitoring and Evaluation Programme for the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP). The intensive monitoring locations should be selected based on pollution climates and type of vegetation, common in Europe.

acidification dry and wet deposition euthrophication monitoring 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beverland, I. J., Oneill, S. L., Scott and Moncrieff, J. B.: 1996, ‘Design, Construction and Operation of Flux Measurements Using the Conditional Sampling Technique’, Atmos. Emviron. 30, 3209–3220.Google Scholar
  2. Brost, R. A., Delany, A. C. and Huebert, B. J.: 1988, ‘Numerical Modelling of Concentrations and fluxes of HNO3, NH3 and NH4NO3 near the surface’, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 7137–7152.Google Scholar
  3. Businger, J. A.: 1986, ‘Evaluation of the Accuracy With Which dry Deposition can be Measured With Current Micrometeorological Techniques’, J. Climate Appl. Meteor. 25, 1100–1124.Google Scholar
  4. Businger, J. A. and Oncley, S. P.: 1990, ‘Flux Measurement with Conditional Sampling’, J. Atmosph. Oceanic Technol. 349–352.Google Scholar
  5. Draaijers, G. P. J., Erisman, J.W., Spranger, T and Wyers, G. P.: 1996, ‘The Application of Throughfall Measurements for Atmospheric Deposition Monitoring’, Atmosph. Environ. 30, 3349–3361.Google Scholar
  6. Duyzer, J. H., Wyers, G. P., Ruijgrok, W., Erisman, J.W., Fowler, D. and Spindler, G.: 1996, Towards development of a deposition monitoring network for air pollution in Europe: Description of a deposition monitoring system. Report TNO-MEP-R96/ 113, TNO, Delft, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  7. ECE: 1994, Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe Environment and Human Settlements Division, Palais des Nations, CG1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland, ECE/ENHS/NONE/94/14.Google Scholar
  8. Erisman, J. W.: 1993, ‘Acid Deposition onto Nature Areas in The Netherlands; Part I. Methods and results’, Water, Soil and Air Pollut. 71 51–80.Google Scholar
  9. Erisman, J. W., Versluis, A. H., Verplanke, T. A. J. W., Haan D. de Anink, D., Elzakker, B. G. van, Mennen, M. G. and Aalst, R. M. van: 1993, ‘Monitoring the Dry Deposition of SO2 in The Netherlands’, Atmosp. Environ. 27, 1153–1161.Google Scholar
  10. Erisman, J. W., Pul, A. van and Wyers, P.: 1994a, ‘Parameterization of Dry Deposition Mechanisms for the Quantification of Atmospheric Input to Ecosystems’, Atmos. Environ. 28, 2595–2607.Google Scholar
  11. Erisman, J. W. and Draaijers, G. P. J.: 1995, ‘Atmospheric Deposition in Relation to Acidification and Eutrophication’, Studies in Environ. Res 63, Elesvier, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  12. Erisman, J.W., Mennen, M. G., Fowler, D., Spindler, G., Duyzer, J.H., Ruigrok, W. and Wuyers, G. P.: 1996a, ‘Towards Development of a Deposition Monitoring Network for Air Pollution of Europe’, Report no. 722108015, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  13. Erisman, J.W., Draaijers, G. P. J., Mennen, M. G., Hogenkamp, J. E.M. and Putten van E., Uiterwijk, E., Kemkers, E., Wiese, H., Duyzer, J. H., Otjes, R. and Wyers, G. P.: 1996b, ‘Towards Development of a Deposition Monitoring Network for Air Pollution of Europe; Deposition Monitoring Over the Speulder Forest’, Report no. 722108014, National Institute of Public health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  14. Erisman, J. W., Draaijers, G. J. P., Duyzer, J. H., Hofschreuder, P., Leeuwen, N. van, Römer, F. G., Ruijgrok, W., Wyers, G. P. and Gallagher, M.: 1996c, ‘Particle Desposition to Forests: Summary of Results’, Atmos. Environ., in press.Google Scholar
  15. Erisman, J. W., Potma, C., Draaijers, G. P. J., Van Leeuwen, E. P. and Van Pul, W. A. J.: 1996d, ‘A Generalised Description of the Deposition of Acidifying Pollutants on a Small Scale in Europe’, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 85, 2101–2106.Google Scholar
  16. Erisman, J. W., Hogenkamp, J. E. M., van Putten, E. M., Uiterwijk, J, W., Kemkers, E. Wiese, C. J. and Mennen, M. G.: 1997, ‘Long-term Continuous Measurements of SO2 Dry Deposition Over the Speulder Forest’, Water, Air and Soil Pollut., submitted.Google Scholar
  17. Foken, Th., Dlugi, R. and Kramm, G.: 1995, ‘On the Determination of Dry Deposition and Emission of Gaseous Compounds at the Biosphere-Atmosphere Interface’, Meteorol. Zeitschrift, N. F. 4, 91–118.Google Scholar
  18. Fowler, D.: 1978, ‘Dry Deposition of SO2 on Agricultural Crops’, Atmosp. Environ. 12, 369–373.Google Scholar
  19. Fowler, D., Duyzer, J. H. and Baldocchi, D. D.: 1991, ‘Inputs of Trace Gases, Particles and Cloud Droplets to Terrestrial Surfaces’, Proc. R. Soc. Edinburgh 97B, 35–59.Google Scholar
  20. Fowler, D., Flechard, C. R., Milford, C., Hargreaves, K. J., Storeton-West, R. L., Nemitz, E. and Sutton, M. A.: 1996, Towards Development of a Deposition Monitoring Network for Air Pollution in Europe: Measurements of Pollutant Concentration and Deposition Fluxes to Moorland at Auchencorth Moss in Southern Scotland, 1995. Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Edinburgh, Scotland.Google Scholar
  21. Gao, W.: 1995, ‘The Vertical Change of Coefficient-b, Used in the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Method for Measurements Above and Within a Forest Canopy’, Atmos. Environ. 29, 2339–2347.Google Scholar
  22. Grennfelt, P., Rodhe, H., Thörnelöf, E. and Wisniewski, J.: 1995, Acid Reign ‘95? Conference Statement and plenary papers. Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 85(1-4), 1–295.Google Scholar
  23. Hicks, B. B., Baldocchi, D. D., Meyers, T. P., Hosker Jr., R. P. and Matt, D. R.: 1987, ‘A Preliminary Multiple Resistance Routine for Deriving Dry Deposition Velocities from Measured Quantities’, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut, 36, 311–330.Google Scholar
  24. Hicks, B. B., Draxler, R. R., Albritton, D. L., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Hales, J. M., Meyers, T. P., Vong, R. L., Dodge, M., Schwartz, S. E., Tanner, R. L., Davidson, C. I., Lindberg, S. E. and Wesely, M. L.: 1989, ‘Atmospheric Processes Research and Process Model Development. State of Science/Technology’, Report No. 2. National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program.Google Scholar
  25. Iversen, T., Halvorsen, N., Mylona, S. and Sandnes, H.: 1991, ‘Calculated Budgest for Airborne Acidifying Components in Europe, 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1990’, MCS-West, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo.Google Scholar
  26. Keuken, M. P., Schoonebeek, C. A.M., van Wensveen-Louter, A and Slanina, J.: 1988, ‘Simultaneous Sampling of NH3, HNO3, HC1, SO2 and H202 in Ambient Air by aWet Annular Denuder System’, Atmos. Environ. 22, 2541–2548.Google Scholar
  27. Kramm, G., Dlugi, R., Dollard, G. J., Foken, T., Molders, N., Muller, H., Seiler, W. and Sievering, H.: 1995, ‘On the Dry Deposition of Ozone and Reactive Nitrogen Species’, Atmos. Environ. 29, 3209–3231.Google Scholar
  28. Lövblad, G., Erisman, J. W. and Fowler, D.: 1993, ‘Models and Methods for the Quantification of Atmospheric Input to Ecosystems’, Report No. Nord 1993 573, Göteborg, Sweden, 3-7 November 1992, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  29. Mennen, M. G., Uiterwijk, J. W., Putten, E. M. van Hellemond, J., van Wiese, C. W., Regts, T. A., Hogenkamp, J. E. M., Kemkers, E., Otjes, R. and Erisman, J. W.: 1997, ‘Dry Deposition, Monitoring over the Speulder forest: 2. Description of the Equipment and Evaluation of the Measuring Methods’, Report no. 722108014, National Instituute of Public Health and Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  30. Oncley, S. P., Delany, A. C. and Horst, T. W.: 1993, ‘Verification of Flux Measurements Using Relaxed Eddy Accumulation’, Atmos. Environ. 27A(15), 2417–2426.Google Scholar
  31. Oms, M. T., Jongejan, P. A. C., Veltkamp, A. C., Wyers, G. P. and Slanina, J.: 1996, Continuous Monitoring of Atmospheric HC1, HNO2, JNO3 and SO2 by Wet Annular Denuder Air sampling With On-line Chromatographic Analysis’, Intern. J. Environ. Anal. Chem. 62, 207–218.Google Scholar
  32. Pul, W. A. J. van, Erisman, J.W., Jaarsveld, J. A. van and de Leeuw, F. A. A.M.: 1992, ‘High Resolution Assessment of Acid deposition Fluxes’, In: T. Scneider (Ed.), ‘Acidification Research: Evaluation and Policy Application’, Studies in Evironmental Science 50, Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  33. Römer, F. G. and te Winkel, B. W.: 1994, ‘Droge depositie van aerosolen of vegetatie: verzurende componenten en basische kationen’, Report 63591-KES/ MLU 93-3243, KEMA, Arnhem, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  34. Schaug, J., Pederson, U., Skjelmoen, J. E., Kvalvågnes: 1992, Data report 1991. Part 1: Annual summaries, Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning, Lillestrom, Norway.Google Scholar
  35. Schjoerring, J. K., Ferm, M. and Sommer, S. G.: 1992, ‘Measurement ofNH3 Emission and Deposition by the Gradient Method: Can Passive Flux Samplers Be Used To Obtain the Net Exchange of NH3 through Periods of several days with varying Wind Speed and Atmospheric NH3 Concentration’, Proceedings of the Workshop development of Analytical Techniques for Atmospheric Pollutants, Rome, April, April 13-15, 1992. I. Allegrini (ed.) ISBN 2872630821.Google Scholar
  36. Spindler, G. and Grüner, A.: 1996, 'Towards Development of a Deposition Monitoring Network for Air Pollution of Europe: The Melpitz site in Germany - Results of measurements Made in 1995, IFT, Leipzig, Germany.Google Scholar
  37. Winkler, P.: 1985, ‘Verfahren der Depositionsmessung’, Staub Reinhaltung der Luft 45, 256–260.Google Scholar
  38. Wyers, G. P., Orjes, R. P. and Slanina, J.: 1993, ‘A Continuous-flow Denuder for the Measurement of Ambient Concentrations and Surface Exchange Fluxes of Ammonia’, Atmosph. Environ. 27A, 285–2090.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. W. Erisman
    • 1
  • M. G. Mennen
    • 1
  • D. Fowler
    • 2
  • C. R. Flechard
    • 2
  • G. Spindler
    • 3
  • A. Grüner
    • 3
  • J. H. Duyzer
    • 4
  • W. Ruigrok
    • 5
  • G. P. Wyers
    • 6
  1. 1.RIVMBilthoven, TheNetherlands
  2. 2.ITE, Bush Estate, PenicuikMidlothianU.K
  3. 3.IfT e.V.LeipzigGermany
  4. 4.TNOJA DelftThe Netherlands
  5. 5.KEMAET ArnhemThe Netherlands
  6. 6.ECNPettenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations