Photosynthesis Research

, Volume 53, Issue 2–3, pp 141–148 | Cite as

Quantitative analysis of 77K fluorescence emission spectra in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with variable PS I/PS II stoichiometries

  • Akio Murakami

Abstract

Low-temperature (77 K) fluorescence emission spectra of intact cells of a cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714, and a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, were quantitatively analyzed to examine differences in PS I/PS II stoichiometries. Cells cultured under different spectral conditions had various PS I/PS II molar ratios when estimated by oxidation-reduction difference absorption spectra of P700 (for PS I) and Cyt b-559 (for PS II) with thylakoid membranes. The fluorescence emission spectra under the Chl a excitation at 435 nm were resolved into several component bands using curve-fitting methods and the relative band area between PS II (F685 and F695) and PS I (F710 or F720) emissions was compared with the PS I/PS II stoichiometries of the various cell types. The results indicated that the PS I/PS II fluorescence ratios correlated closely with photosystem stoichiometries both in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6714 and in C. reinhardtii grown under different light regimes. Furthermore, the correlation between the PS I/PS II fluorescence ratios and the photosystem stoichiometries is also applicable to vascular plants.

Chlamydomonas Cyt b-559 P700 PS I/PS II stoichiometry Synechocystis 

References

  1. Aizawa K and Fujita Y (1997) Regulation of synthesis of PS I in the cyanophytes SynechocystisPCC 6714 and Plectonema boryanumduring the acclimation of the photosystem stoichiometry to the light quality. Plant Cell Physiol 38: 319-326Google Scholar
  2. Aizawa K, Shimizu T, Hiyama Y, Satoh K, Nakamura Y and Fujita Y (1992) Changes in composition of membrane proteins accompanying the regulation of PS I/PS II stoichiometry observed with SynechocystisPCC 6803. Photosynth Res 32: 131-138Google Scholar
  3. Ajlani G, Vernotte C, Dimagno L and Haselkorn R (1995) Phycobilisome core mutants of SynechocystisPCC 6803. Biochim Biophys Acta 1231: 189-196Google Scholar
  4. Allen JF, Mullineaux CW, Sanders CE and Melis A (1989) State transitions, photosystem stoichiometry adjustment and non-photochemical quenching in cyanobacterial cells acclimated to light absorbed by Photosystem I or Photosystem II. Photosynth Res 22: 157-166Google Scholar
  5. Bruce D, Brimble S and Bryant DA (1989) State transitions in a phycobilisome-less mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechococcussp. PCC 7002. Biochim Biophys Acta 974: 66-73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Butko P (1984) Changes in photosynthetic apparatus and excitation energy distribution in Chlorelladuring the life cycle. Photobiochem Photobiopys 8:63-72Google Scholar
  7. Butler WL and Kitajima M (1975) Energy transfer between Photosystem II and Photosystem I in chloroplasts Biochim Biophys Acta 396: 72-85PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chow WS, Anderson JA, and Hope AB (1988) Variable stoichiometries of Photosystem II to Photosystem I reaction centers. Photosynth Res 17: 277-281Google Scholar
  9. Cunningham FX Jr, Dennenberg RJ, Mustardy L, Jursinic PA and Gantt E (1989) Stoichiometry of Photosystem I, Photosystem II, and phycobilisomes in the red alga Porphyridium cruentumas a function of growth irradiance. Plant Physiol. 91: 1179-1187Google Scholar
  10. Cunningham FX Jr, Dennenberg RJ, Jursinic PA and Gantt E (1990) Growth under red light enhances Photosystem II relative to Photosystem I and phycobilisomes in the red alga Porphyridium cruentum. Plant Physiol 93: 888-895Google Scholar
  11. Delphin E, Duval J-C and Kirilovsky D (1995) Comparison of state 1-state 2 transitions in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtiiand in the red alga Rhodella violacea: Effect of kinase and phosphatase inhibitors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1232: 91-95Google Scholar
  12. Fork DC and Satoh K (1986) The control by state transitions of the distribution of excitation energy in photosynthesis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 37: 335-361Google Scholar
  13. Fujita Y and Murakami A (1987) Regulation of electron transport composition in cyanobacterial photosynthetic system: Stoichiometry among Photosystem I and II complexes and their light-harvesting antennae and cytochrome b 6-fcomplex. Plant Cell Physiol 28: 1547-155Google Scholar
  14. Fujita Y, Ohki K and Murakami A (1985) Chromatic regulation of photosystem composition in the photosynthetic system of red and blue-green algae. Plant Cell Physiol 26: 1541-1548Google Scholar
  15. Fujita Y, Murakami A, Ohki K and Hagiwara N (1988) Regulation of photosystem composition in cyanobacterial photosynthetic system: Evidence indicating that Photosystem I formation is controlled in response to the ellectron transport state. Plant Cell Physiol 29: 557-564Google Scholar
  16. Fujita Y, Murakami A, Aizawa K and Ohki K (1994) A short-term and long-term adaptation of the photosynthetic apparatus: Homeostatic properties of thylakoids. In: Bryant DA (ed) The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, pp 677-692. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  17. Fujita Y, Murakami A and Aizawa K (1995) The accumulation of protochlorophyllide in cells of SynechocystisPCC 6714 with a low PS I/PS II stoichiometry. Plant Cell Physiol 36: 575-582Google Scholar
  18. Garewall HS and Wasserman AR (1974) Triton X-100-4M urea as an extraction medium for membrane proteins. I. Purification of chloroplast cytochrome b-559. Biochemistry 13: 4063-4071PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Glick RE, McCauley SW, Gruissem W and Melis A (1986) Light quality regulates expression of chloroplast genes and assembly of photosynthetic membrane complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 4287-4291Google Scholar
  20. Gu T-Q, Iwama Y, Murakami A, Adhikary SP and Fujita Y (1994) Changes in the cytochrome coxidase activity in response to light regime for photosynthesis observed with the cyanophyte SynechocystisPCC 6714. Plant Cell Physiol 35: 1135-1140Google Scholar
  21. Hiyama T and Ke B (1972) Difference spectra and extinction coefficients of P700. Biochim Biophys Acta 267: 160-171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Jursinic P and Dennenberg R (1989) Measurement of stoichiometry of Photosystem II to Photosystem I reaction centers. Photosynth Res 21: 197-200Google Scholar
  23. Kawamura M, Mimuro M and Fujita Y (1979) Quantitative relationship between two reaction centers in the photosynthetic system of blue-green algae. Plant Cell Physiol 20: 697-705Google Scholar
  24. Kim JH, Glick RE and Melis A (1993) Dynamics of photosystem stoichiometry adjustment by light quality in chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 102: 181-190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kuwabara T and Murata N (1982) Inactivation of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and concomitant release of three polypeptides in the Photosystem II particles of spinach chloroplasts. Plant Cell Physiol 23: 533-539Google Scholar
  26. Ley CA and Butler WL (1980) Effects of chromatic adaptation on the photochemical apparatus of photosynthesis in Porphyridium cruentum. Plant Physiol. 65: 714-722Google Scholar
  27. Mackinney G (1941) Absorption of light by chlorophyll solutions. J Biol Chem 140: 315-322Google Scholar
  28. MacDonald GM, Boerner RJ, Everly RM, Cramer WA, Debus RJ and Barry BA (1994) Comparison of cytochrome b-559 content in Photosystem II complexes from spinach and Synechocystisspecies PCC 6803. Biochemistry 34: 4393-4400Google Scholar
  29. Manodori A and Melis A (1984) Photochemical apparatus organization in Anacystis nidulans(Cyanophyceae): Effect of CO2concentration during cell growth. Plant Physiol 74: 67-71Google Scholar
  30. Melis A, Mullineaux CW and Allen JF (1989) Acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to Photosystem I or Photosystem II light: Evidence from quantum yield measurements and fluorescence spectroscopy of cyanobacterial cells. Z Naturforsch 44C: 109-118Google Scholar
  31. Melis A, Murakami A, Nemson JF, Aizawa K, Ohki K and Fujita Y (1996) Chromatic regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtiialters photosystem stoichiometry and improves the quantum efficiency of photosynthesis. Photosynth Res 47: 253-265Google Scholar
  32. Mende D, Maroti P and Wiessner W (1983) Energy distribution between two photosystems during the life-cycle of synchronized cultures of Chlorella fusca. Physiol Veg 21: 469-474Google Scholar
  33. Mimuro M and Fujita Y (1977) Estimation of chlorophyll adistribution in the photosynthetic pigment system I and II of the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis. Biochim Biophys Acta 459: 376-389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Mimuro M, Murakami A and Fujita Y (1982) Studies on spectral characteristics of allophycocyanin isolated from Anabaena cylindrica: Curve-fitting analysis. Arch Biochem Biophys 215: 266-273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Mimuro M, Tamai N, Yamazaki T and Yamazaki I (1987) Excitation energy transfer in spinach chloroplasts: Analysis by the time-resolved fluorescence spectrum at −196 °C in the picosecond time range. FEBS Lett 213: 119-122Google Scholar
  36. Murakami A and Fujita Y (1988) Steady state of photosynthesis in cyanobacterial photosynthetic system before and after regulation of electron transport composition: Overall rate of photosynthesis and PS I/PS II composition. Plant Cell Physiol 29: 305-311Google Scholar
  37. Murakami A and Fujita Y (1991a) Steady state of photosynthetic electron transport in cells of the cyanophyte SynechocystisPCC 6714 having different stoichiometry between PS I and PS II: Analysis of flash-induced oxidation-reduction of cytochrome fand P700 under steady state of photosynthesis. Plant Cell Physiol 32: 213-222Google Scholar
  38. Murakami A and Fujita Y (1991b) Regulation of photosystem stoichiometry in the photosynthetic system of the cyanophyte SynechocystisPCC 6714 in response to light-intensity. Plant Cell Physiol 32: 223-230Google Scholar
  39. Murakami A, Fujita Y, Nemson JF and Melis A (1997) Chromatic regulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Time course of photosystem stoichiometry adjustment following a shift in growth light quality. Plant Cell Physiol 38: 188-193Google Scholar
  40. Murata N (1969) Control of excitation transfer in photosynthesis. I. Light-induced change of chlorophyll afluorescence in Porphyridium cruentum. Biochim Biophys Acta 172: 242-251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Murata N, Nishimura M and Takamiya A (1966) Fluorescence of chlorophyll in photosynthetic systems. III. Emission and action spectra of fluorescence — three emission bands of chlorophyll aand the energy transfer between two pigment systems. Biochim Biophys Acta 126: 234-243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Myers J, Graham JR and Wang RT (1980) Light harvesting in Anacystis nidulansstudied in pigment mutants. Plant Physiol 66: 1144-1149Google Scholar
  43. Nilsson F, Simpson DJ, Jansson C and Andersson B (1992) Ultrastructural and biochemical characterization of a Synechocystis6803 mutant with inactivated psbAgenes. Arch Biochim Biophys 295: 340-347Google Scholar
  44. Salehian O and Bruce D (1992) Distribution of excitation energy in photosynthesis: Quantification of fluorescence yields from intact cyanobacteria. J Luminescence 51: 91-98Google Scholar
  45. Satoh K (1980) F-695 emission from the purified Photosystem II chlorophyll a-protein complex. FEBS Lett 110: 53-56Google Scholar
  46. Schubert H and Hagemann M (1990) Salt effects on 77 K fluorescence and photosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystissp. PCC 6803. FEMS Microbiol Lett 71: 169-172Google Scholar
  47. Shen G and Vermaas WFJ (1994) Chlorophyll in a Synechocystissp. PCC 6803 mutant without Photosystem I and Photosystem II core complexes. Evidence for peripheral antenna chlorophylls in cyanobacteria. J Biol Chem 269: 13904-13910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Sueoka N (1960) Mitotic replication of deoxyribonucleic acid in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 46: 83-91Google Scholar
  49. Vernotte C, Astier C and Olive J (1990) State 1-state 2 adaptation in the cyanobacteria SynechocystisPCC 6714 wild type and SynechocystisPCC 6803 wild and phycocyanin-less mutant. Photosynth Res 26: 203-212Google Scholar
  50. Watanabe A (1960) List of algal strains in collection at the Institute of Applied Microbiology, University of Tokyo. J Gen Appl Microbiol 6: 28-292Google Scholar
  51. Westermann M, Ernst A, Brass S, Böger P and Wehrmeyer W (1994) Ultrastructure of cell wall and photosynthetic apparatus of the phycobilisome-less Synechocystissp. Strain BO 8402 and phycobilisome-containing derivative strain BO 9201. Arch Microbiol 162: 222-232Google Scholar
  52. Wilhelm C (1990) The biochemistry and physiology of light-harvesting processes in chlorophyll b-and chlorophyll c-containing algae. Plant Physiol Biochem 28: 293-306.Google Scholar
  53. Williams WP and Allen JF (1987) State 1/state 2 changes in higher plants and algae. Photosynth Res 13: 19-45Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akio Murakami
    • 1
  1. 1.The Center for Analytical InstrumentsNational Institute for Basic BiologyOkazaki, AichiJapan

Personalised recommendations