Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 28, Issue 1–3, pp 45–59 | Cite as

Segregation and Interpretation of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Measurements by Air Mass Origin at the TOR Station Mace Head, Ireland from 1987 to 1995

  • P. G. Simmonds
  • S. Seuring
  • G. Nickless
  • R. G. Derwent


Three independent methods have been used to sort the ozone, carbonmonoxide, and other radiatively important trace gases measured at Mace Head,Ireland, and thereby distinguish clean air masses transported over the NorthAtlantic from the more polluted air masses which have recently travelledfrom the European continent. Over the period April 1987–June 1995 theNorthern Hemisphere surface ozone baseline concentrations exhibited a meanconcentration of 34.8 ppb, with a small positive trend (+0.19 ppbyr-1), while the corresponding trend in air originating fromthe polluted European areas was negative (–0.39 ppbyr-1). Carbon monoxide measurements from March 1990 toDecember 1994 showed negative trends for both the unpolluted (–0.17ppb yr-1) and polluted data (–13.6 ppbyr-1). Overall the continent of Europe was shown to be a smallnet sink of 2.6 ppb for all occasions when European air was transported tothe North Atlantic.

tropospheric ozone trends seasonal cycle carbon monoxide baseline monitoring 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Berge, E., Styve, H., and Simpson, D., 1995: EMEP/MSC-W, Report 2/95, Status of emission data at MSC-W.Google Scholar
  2. Bojkov, R. D., 1994: The ozone layer-recent developments, WMO Bull. 43, 113–116.Google Scholar
  3. CORINAIR, 1990: Summary tables. European Environment Agency, Kongers Nytorv 6, Dk-1050 Kobehavnk, Denmark.Google Scholar
  4. Cunnold, D. M., Prinn, R. G., Rasmussen, R. A., Simmonds, P. G., Alyea, F. N., Cardelino, C. A., Crawford, A. J., Fraser, P. J., and Rosen, R. D., 1986: Atmospheric lifetime and annual release estimates for CFCl3 and CF2Cl2 from five years of ALE data, J. Geophys. Res. 91, 10797–10817.Google Scholar
  5. Danielson, E. F. and Mohnen, V., 1977: Project Duststorm Report: ozone transport in situmeasurements and meteorological analysis of tropospheric folding, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 5867–5877.Google Scholar
  6. Derwent, R. G., Simmonds, P.G., and Collins, W. J., 1994: Ozone and carbon monoxide measurements at a remote maritime location,Mace Head, Ireland, from 1990 to 1992, Atmos. Environ. 28, 2623–2637.Google Scholar
  7. Doddridge, B.G., Dirmeyer, P.A., Merrill, J.T., Oltmans, S. J., and Dickerson, R. R., 1994: Interannual variability over the eastern North Atlantic Ocean: chemical and meteorological evidence for tropical influence on regional-scale transport in the extratropics, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 22923–22935.Google Scholar
  8. Dlugokencky, E. J., Masarie, K. A., Lang, P. M., Tans, P. P., and Fung, I., 1994: A dramatic decrease in the growth rate of atmospheric methane in the Northern Hemisphere in 1992, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 45–48.Google Scholar
  9. Fehsenfeld, F., 1994: Transport of O3 and O3 precursors from anthropogenic sources to the North Atlantic, in P. Borrell et al.(eds), EUROTRAC Symp. ’94, SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 56–64.Google Scholar
  10. Harris, N. R. P., Ancellet, G., Bishop, L., Hofmann, D. J., Kerr, J. B., McPeters, R. D., Prendez, M., Randel, W., Staehelin, J., Subbaraya, B. H., Volz-Thomas, A., Zawodny, J. M., Zerefos, C. S., 1995: Ozone measurements, in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, WMO/UNEP, pp. 1.1–1.54.Google Scholar
  11. IPCC, The 1994 Report of the Scientific Assessment Working Group of IPCC (WMO-UNEP), Radiative Forcing of Climatic Change.Google Scholar
  12. Janach, W., 1989: Surface ozone: trend details, seasonal variations and interpretation, J. Geophys. Res. 94, 18289–18295.Google Scholar
  13. Khalil, M. A. K. and Rasmussen, R. A., 1994: Global decrease in atmospheric carbon monoxide concentration, Nature 370, 639–641.Google Scholar
  14. Kley, D., Geiss, H., and Mohnen, V. A., 1994: Tropospheric ozone at elevated sites and precursor emissions in the United States and Europe, Atmos. Environ. 28A, 149–158.Google Scholar
  15. Lelieveld, J. and Crutzen, P. J., 1990: Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone, Nature 343, 227–233.Google Scholar
  16. Lemhaus, R., Saltbones, R., and Eliassen, A., 1985: Deposition pattern and transport sector analysis for a four year period, Norwegian Meteorological Institute Report EMEP/MSC-W 1/87, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.Google Scholar
  17. Lightman, P., Kallend, A. S., Marsh, A. R. W., Jones, B. M. R., and Penkett, S. A., 1990: Seasonal variation of hydrocarbons in the free troposphere at mid-latitudes, Tellus 42B, 408–422.Google Scholar
  18. Logan, J. A., 1994: Trend in the vertical distribution of ozone: an analysis of ozonesonde data, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25553–25585.Google Scholar
  19. Marenco, A., Gouget, H., Nedelec, P., and Pages, J. P., 1994: Evidence of a long-term increase in tropospheric ozone from Pic du Midi data series: consequences: positive radiative forcing, J. Geophys. Res. 99(D8), 16617–16632.Google Scholar
  20. Merrill, J. T., 1994: Isentropic airflow probability analysis, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25881–25889.Google Scholar
  21. Novelli, P. C., Masarie, K. A., Tans, P. P., and Lang, P., 1994: Recent changes in atmospheric carbon monoxide, Science 263, 1587–1590.Google Scholar
  22. Oltmans, S. J. and Levy, H., 1992: Seasonal cycle of surface ozone over the western North Atlantic, Nature 358, 392–394.Google Scholar
  23. Oltmans, S. J. and Levy II, H., 1994: Surface ozone measurements from a global network, Atmos. Environ. 28, 9–24.Google Scholar
  24. Parrish, D. D., Holloway, J. S., Trainer, M., Murphy, P. C., Forbes, G. L., and Fehsenfeld, F. C., 1993: Export of North American ozone pollution to the North Atlantic Ocean, Science 259, 1436–1439.Google Scholar
  25. Penkett, S. A. and Brice, K. A., 1986: The spring maximum in photo-oxidants in the Northern Hemisphere, Nature 319, 655–657.Google Scholar
  26. Penkett, S. A., 1988: Indications and causes of ozone increase in the troposphere, in F. S. Rowland and I. S. A. Isaksen (eds), The Changing Atmosphere, Wiley, Chichester, pp. 91–103.Google Scholar
  27. Piotrowicz, S. R., Fischer, C. J., and Artz, R. S., 1990: Ozone and carbon monoxide over the North Atlantic during a boreal summer, Global Biogeochem. Cycles 4, 215–224.Google Scholar
  28. Prinn, R. G., Weiss, R. F., Miller, B. R., Huang, J., Alyea, F. N., Cunnold, D.M., Fraser, P. J., Hartley, D. E., and Simmonds, P. G., 1995: Atmospheric trends and lifetime of CH3CCl3 and global OH concentrations, Science 269, 187–192.Google Scholar
  29. Scheel, H. E., Sladkovic, R., and Seiler, W., 1994: Ozone and related species at the stations Wank and Zugspitze: Trends, short-term variations and correlations with other parameters, in P. M. Borell et al.(eds), Proc. EUROTRAC Symp. ’92, Photooxidants: Precursors and Products, SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands, pp. 104–108.Google Scholar
  30. Schmitt, R., Schreiber, B., and Levin, I., 1988: Effects of long-range transport on atmospheric trace constituents at the baseline station Tenerife (Canary Islands), J. Atmos. Chem. 7, 335–351.Google Scholar
  31. Simmonds, P. G. and Derwent, R. G., 1991: Measurements of ozone and other radiatively important trace gases at Mace Head in the Republic of Ireland, Atmos. Environ. 25A, 1795–1808.Google Scholar
  32. Simmonds, P. G., Cunnold, D. M., Dollard, G. J., Davies, T. J., McCulloch, A., and Derwent, R. G., 1993: Evidence for the phase-out of CFC use in Europe over the period 1987–1990, Atmos. Environ. 27A, 1397–1407.Google Scholar
  33. Tarasick, D. W., Wardle, D. I., Kerr, J. B., Bellefleur, J. J., and Davies, J., 1995: Tropospheric ozone trends over Canada: 1980–1993, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 409–412.Google Scholar
  34. The TOR Network, 1994: A description of the TOR measurements stations, in T. Cvitas and D. Kley (eds), Eurotrac ISS, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.Google Scholar
  35. Volz, A. and Kley, D., 1988: Evaluation of the Montsouris series of ozone measurements made in the nineteenth century, Nature 332, 240–242.Google Scholar
  36. Volz, A., Geib, S., McKeen, S., and Kley, D., 1989: Correlation of O3 and solar radiation at Montsouris and Hohenpeissenberg: Implications for photochemical influence, in R. D. Bojkov and P. Fabian (eds), Ozone in the Atmosphere, Deepak Publ., Hampton, Virginia, U.S.A., pp. 419–422.Google Scholar
  37. Winkler, P., 1989: Meridional distribution of surface ozone over the Atlantic (83°N–76° S), in R. D. Bojkov and P. Fabian (eds), Ozone in the Atmosphere, pp. 423–424.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. G. Simmonds
    • 1
  • S. Seuring
    • 1
  • G. Nickless
    • 1
  • R. G. Derwent
    • 2
  1. 1.School of ChemistryUniversity of BristolBristolU.K
  2. 2.Meteorological OfficeAtmospheric Processes ResearchBracknell, BerkshireU.K

Personalised recommendations