Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

, Volume 44, Issue 1–3, pp 45–52 | Cite as

Artificial Reefs of Southeast Asia - Do They Enhance or Degrade the Marine Environment?

  • L. M. Chou


Artificial reefs are seen as effective tools to enhance the marine environment and increase productivity, particularly fish biomass and abundance. Many Southeast Asian countries have implemented artificial reef programmes. When effectively managed, artificial reefs enhance habitats and biological productivity. Management includes proper planning on the use and configuration of materials, site selection, and regulatory control of fisheries harvest. Without planning and long-term management, artificial reefs fail and become nothing more than pollutants that contribute to the further degradation of the marine environment.


Biomass Environmental Management Marine Environment Asian Country Regulatory Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. M. Chou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ZoologyNational University of SingaporeSingapore

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