Journal of Business Ethics

, Volume 17, Issue 14, pp 1581–1593 | Cite as

The Effects of Individual Difference Factors on the Acceptability of Ethical and Unethical Workplace Behaviors

  • Michelle C. Reiss
  • Kaushik Mitra
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this paper was to determine whether the individual attributes of locus of control, gender, major in college and years of job experience affect the acceptability of certain workplace behaviors. A total of 198 college students of a mid-sized southeastern university formed the sample for this study. Locus of control, gender and years of job experience were found to have some affect on whether an individual considered a certain behavior acceptable or unacceptable.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beltramini, R. F., R. A. Peterson and G. Kozmetsky: 1984, ‘Concerns of College Students Regarding Business Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 3, 195–200.Google Scholar
  2. Blau, Gary: 1993, ‘Testing the Relationship of Locus of Control to Different Performance Dimensions’, Journal of Occupational Psychology 66( June), 125–138.Google Scholar
  3. Bommer, Michael, Clarence Gratto, Jerry Gravander and Mark Tuttle: 1987, ‘A Behavioral Model of Ethical and Unethical Decision Making’, Journal of Business Ethics 6, 265–280.Google Scholar
  4. Browning, J. and N. B. Zabriske: 1983, ‘How Ethical are Industrial Buyers?’, Industrial Marketing Management 12, 219–224.Google Scholar
  5. Callan, V. J.: 1992, ‘Predicting Ethical Values and Training Needs in Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 761–769.Google Scholar
  6. Chonko, L. B. and S. D. Hunt: 1985, ‘Ethics and Marketing Management: An Empirical Examination’, Journal of Business Research 13(August), 339–359.Google Scholar
  7. Churchill, Gilbert A.: 1979, ‘A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs’, Journal of Marketing Research 16(February), 64–73.Google Scholar
  8. Comer, James M.: 1985, ‘Machiavellianism and Inner vs. Outer Directedness: A Study of Sales Managers’, Psychological Reports 56, 81–82.Google Scholar
  9. Derry, Robbin and Ronald M. Green: 1989, ‘Ethical Theory in Business Ethics: A Critical Assessment’, Journal of Business Ethics 8, 521–533.Google Scholar
  10. Dubinsky, A. J. and M. Levy: 1985, ‘Ethics in Retailing: Perceptions of Retail Salespeople’, Journal of Academy of Marketing Science 13(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  11. Dubinsky, A. J. and T. N. Ingram: 1984, ‘Correlates of Salespeople's Ethical Conflict: An Exploratory Investigation’, Journal of Business Ethics 3, 343–353.Google Scholar
  12. ‘Ethics in American Business’, Touche Ross and Co., as reviewed in ‘Business in Brief’: 1988, Business, April-June, pp. 58–59.Google Scholar
  13. Ferrell, O. C. and S. J. Skinner: 1988, ‘Ethical Behavior and Bureaucratic Structure in Marketing Research Organizations’, Journal of Marketing Research 25(February), 103–109.Google Scholar
  14. Ford, Robert C. and Woodrow D. Richardson: 1994,’ Ethical Decision Making: A Review of the Empirical Literature’, Journal of Business Ethics 13, 205–221.Google Scholar
  15. Gable, Myron, Charles Hollon and Frank Dangello: 1990, ‘Linking Locus of Control to Machiavellianism and Managerial Achievement’, Psychological Reports 67, 339–343.Google Scholar
  16. Goodman, C. S. and C. M. Crawford: 1974, ‘Young Executives: A Source of New Ethics?’, Personnel Journal (March), 180–187.Google Scholar
  17. Hawkins, D. I. and A. B. Cocanougher: 1972, ‘Student Evaluations of the Ethics of Marketing Practices: The Role of Marketing Education’, Journal of Marketing 36(April), 61–64.Google Scholar
  18. Hegarty, W. Harvey and Henry P. Sims, Jr.: 1979, ‘Organizational Philosophy, Policies and Objectives Related to Unethical Decision Behavior: A Laboratory Experiment’, Journal of Applied Psychology 64(3), 331–338.Google Scholar
  19. Hegarty, W. Harvey and Henry P. Sims, Jr.: 1978, ‘Some Determinants of Unethical Decision Behavior: An Experiment’, Journal of Applied Psychology 63, 451–457.Google Scholar
  20. Joe, Victor Clark: 1971, ‘Review of the Internalization Control Construct as a Personality Variable’, Psychological Reports 28, 619–640.Google Scholar
  21. Johnson, Charles D. and John Gormly: 1972, ‘Academic Cheating: The Contribution of Sex, Personality, and Situational Variables’, Developmental Psychology 6, 320–325.Google Scholar
  22. Jones, T. M. and F. H. Gautschi: 1991, ‘Will the Ethics of Business Change? A Survey of Future Executives’, Journal of Business Ethics 7, 231–248.Google Scholar
  23. Jones, William A.: 1990, ‘Student Views of “Ethical” Issues: A Situational Analysis’, Journal of Business Ethics 9, 201–205.Google Scholar
  24. Kidwell, J. M., R. E. Stevens and A. L. Bethke: 1987,’ Difference in the Ethical Perceptions Between Male and Female Managers: Myth or Reality’, Journal of Business Ethics 6, 489–493.Google Scholar
  25. Knouse, Stephen B. and Robert A. Giacalone: 1992, ‘Ethical Decision-Making in Business: Behavioral Issues and Concerns’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 369–377.Google Scholar
  26. Laczniak, G. and E. J. Inderrieden: 1987, ‘The Influence of Stated Organizational Concern upon Ethical Decision Making’, Journal of Business Ethics 6, 297–307.Google Scholar
  27. Maqsud, Muhammad: 1980, ‘Locus of Control and Stages of Moral Reasoning”, Psychological Reports 46, 1243–1248.Google Scholar
  28. McNichols, C. W. and T. W. Zimmerer: 1985, ‘Situational Ethics: An Empirical Study of Differentiation of Student Attitudes’, Journal of Business Ethics 4, 175–180.Google Scholar
  29. Mudrack, Peter E.: 1993, ‘An Investigation into the Acceptability of Workplace Behaviors of a Dubious Ethical Nature’, Journal of Business Ethics 12, 517–524.Google Scholar
  30. Mudrack, Peter E.: 1989, ‘Machiavellianiam and Locus of Control: A Meta-Analytic Review’, The Journal of Social Psychology 130, 125–126.Google Scholar
  31. Nichols, M. L. and V. E. Day: 1982, ‘A Comparison of Moral Reasoning of Groups and Individuals on the “Defining Issues Test”’, Academy of Management Journal 25, 201–208.Google Scholar
  32. Nunally, J. C.: 1978, Psychometric Theory, McGraw-Hill: New York.Google Scholar
  33. Organ, Dennis W. and Thomas Bateman: 1986, Organizational Behavior, Business Publications, Inc.: Plano, Texas.Google Scholar
  34. Phares, E. Jerry: 1976, Locus of Control in Personality, General Learning Press: Morristown, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  35. Ruegger, D. and E. W. King: 1992, ‘A Study of the Effect of Age and Gender Upon Student Business Ethics’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 179–186.Google Scholar
  36. Serwinek, P. J.: 1992, ‘Demographic and Related Differences in Ethical Views Among Small Businesses’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 555–566.Google Scholar
  37. Solar, Diana and Dieter Bruehl: 1971, ‘Machiavellianism and Locus of Control: Two Conceptions of Interpersonal Power”, Psychological Reports 29, 1079–1082.Google Scholar
  38. Spector, Paul E.: 1988, ‘Development of the Work Locus of Control Scale’, Journal of Occupational Psychology 61, 335–340.Google Scholar
  39. Spector, Paul E.: 1982, ‘Behavior in Organizations as a Function of Employee's Locus of Control’, Psychological Bulletin 91, 482–497.Google Scholar
  40. Steiner, G. A.: 1971, Business and Society. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  41. Stevens, G. E., W. D. Richardson and A. E. Abramowitz: 1989, ‘Perceptual Differences of Ethical Decision Situations Business vs. Law: A Difference of Opinion?’, Southern Management Association Proceedings, 199–201.Google Scholar
  42. Trevino, L. K.: 1986, ‘Ethical Decision Making in Organizations: A Person-Situation Interactionist Model’, Academy of Management Review 11, 601–617.Google Scholar
  43. Trevino, Linda Klebe: 1992, ‘Moral Reasoning and Business Ethics: Implications for Research, Education, and Management’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 445–459.Google Scholar
  44. Weiss, H. M. and S. Adler: 1984, ‘Personality and Organizational Behavior’, in B. M. Staw and L. L. Cummings (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior (JAI Press, Greenwich, CT), Vol. 6, pp. 1–50.Google Scholar
  45. Whipple, T. W. and D. F. Swords: 1992, ‘Business Ethics Judgements: A Cross-cultural Comparison’, Journal of Business Ethics 11, 671–678.Google Scholar
  46. Zahra, S. A.: 1989, ‘Executive Values and the Ethics of Company Politics: Some Preliminary Findings’, Journal of Business Ethics 8, 15–29.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michelle C. Reiss
  • Kaushik Mitra

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations