Biogeochemistry

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 145–157

The nutrient input by Harmattan dust to a forest ecosystem in Côte d'Ivoire, Africa

  • J.J. STOORVOGEL
  • N. VAN BREEMEN
  • B.H. JASSEN
Article

Abstract

During December and January, dry northeasterly surface winds (the Harmattan)distribute dust over West Africa. Rate of deposition and some chemical andphysical characteristics of Harmattan dust were measured in Taï NationalPark in the southwest corner of Côte d'Ivoire during the 1990–1991 dryseason. The dust deposition was estimated by the classical water-filled basinmethod and by using canopy drip to account for deposition on tree canopies.Contamination by local biotic debris in both, water-filled basin and canopydrip collectors, was corrected for by using Ti (which appears to be wholly ofatmospheric origin) as a reference element. Harmattan dust in Taï consistedmainly of kaolinitic silt finer than that collected in North Nigeria, closer tothe source area in the Chad basin. The estimates of seasonal deposition rateswere 33 to 47 kg ha-1 for the water-filled basin method andaround 80 kg ha-1 for the canopy drip method. The higher valuein canopy drip was in agreement with expected higher deposition of fine duston the canopies than on a water surface, and was therefore considered morereliable to estimate nutrient inputs by Harmattan dust deposition. The seasonalnutrient input by dust was thus estimated to be 0.11 kg ha-1for P, 2.5 kg ha-1 for K, 3.5 kg ha-1 for Caand 0.4 kg ha-1 for Mg.

Côte d'Ivoire dry deposition dust composition Harmattan nutrient balance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbey S (1980) Studies in 'Standard samples' for use in the general analysis of silicate rocks and minerals. Part 6: 1979 edition of 'usable' values, Geol. Surv. Canada Pap. 80–14Google Scholar
  2. Baudet GJR & Bertrand JJ (1988) Circulation atmosphérique, composition et propriétés physico-chimiques de l'aérosol de Côte d'Ivoire. In: Lamotte M & Tireford JL (Eds). Le climat de la savane de Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire) et sa place dans les climats de l'Ouest africain. Trav. cherch. Lamto (RCI) 8: 117–146Google Scholar
  3. Bowen HJM (1966) Trace elements in biochemistry. Academic press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks RR (1973) Biogeochemical parameters and their significance for mineral exploration. J. Appl. Ecol. 10: 825–836Google Scholar
  5. Doyne HC, Hartley KT & Watson WA (1938) Soil type and manurial experiments in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the Third West African Agricultural Conference, Vol 3 (1): 227–298Google Scholar
  6. Drees LR, Manu A & Wilding LP (1993) Characteristics of aeolian dust in Niger,West Africa. Geoderma 59: 213–233Google Scholar
  7. Hutton JT (1977) Titanium and zirconium minerals. In: Minerals in soil environments (pp. 673–688). Soil Science Society of America, Maddison (WI)Google Scholar
  8. Janssen BH, Noij IGAM, Wesselink LG & Van Grinsven JJM (1990) Simulation of the dynamics of nutrients and moisture in tropical ecosystems. Fert. Res. 26: 145–156Google Scholar
  9. Lindberg SE, Lovett GM, Schaefer DA & Bredemeijer M (1988) Dry deposition velocities and surface-to-canopy scaling factors for aerosol calcium from forest canopy throughfall. J. Aerosol Sci. 19: 1187–1190Google Scholar
  10. Martin C (1991) The rain forests of West Africa: ecology-threats-conservation. Birkhauser Verlag, BaselGoogle Scholar
  11. McTainsh G (1980) Harmattan dust deposition in northern Nigeria. Nature 286: 587–588Google Scholar
  12. McTainsh GH (1985) The nature and origin of the aeolian mantles of central northern Nigeria. Geoderma 33: 13–37Google Scholar
  13. McTainsh GH (1986) A dust monitoring programme for desertification control inWest Africa. Environmental Conservation 13: 17–25Google Scholar
  14. McTainsh GH & Walker PH (1986) Nature and distribution of Harmattan dust. Z. Geomorph. N.F. 26(4): 417–435Google Scholar
  15. Möberg JP, Esu IE & Malgwi WB (1991) Characteristics and constituent composition of Harmattan dust falling in Northern Nigeria. Geoderma 48: 73–81Google Scholar
  16. Morales C (1979) Saharan dust. Mobilization, transport, deposition. Papers and recommendations from a workshop held in Gothenburg, Sweden, 25-28 April 1977. Scope 14. John Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  17. Noij IGAM, Janssen BH, Wesselink LG & van Grinsven JJM (1993) Modelling nutrient and moisture cycling in tropical forests. Tropenbos Series 4. The Tropenbos foundation, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  18. Penning de Vries FWT & Djitèye MA (Eds) (1982) La productivité des pâturages sahéliens. Une étude des sols, des végetations et de l'exploitation de cette resource naturelle. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and DocumentationGoogle Scholar
  19. Pye K (1987) Aeolian dust and dust deposits. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  20. Rapp A (1974) A review of desertization in Africa. Water, vegetation and Man. Secr. Int. Ecology, Rep. StockholmGoogle Scholar
  21. Stoorvogel JJ (1993) Gross inputs and outputs of nutrients in a forest ecosystem, Taï area, Côte d'Ivoire. Tropenbos Series 5. The Tropenbos foundation, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  22. Stoorvogel JJ, Janssen BH & Van Breemen N (1997) The nutrient budgets of a forested watershed and its proper forest ecosystem in the Taï National Park in Côte d'Ivoire. Biogeochem. 37: 159–172Google Scholar
  23. Tiessen H, Hauffe H-K & Mermut AR (1991) Deposition of Harmattan dust and its influence on base saturation of soils in Northern Ghana. Geoderma 49: 285–299Google Scholar
  24. Vrins ELM, Hofschreuder P, ter Kuile WM, Oeseburg F & Alderliesten PT (1985) Het vangstrendement voor grof stof van de mens en van meetinstrumenten in de buitenlucht. Vakgroep Luchthygiëne en-verontreiniging. Landbouwhogeschool WageningenGoogle Scholar
  25. Whalley WB & Smith BJ (1981) Mineral content of Harmattan dust from northern Nigeria examined by scanning electron microscopy. J. of Arid Env. 4: 21–29Google Scholar
  26. Wilke BM, Duke BJ & Jimoh WLO (1984) Mineralogy and chemistry of Harmattan dust in northern Nigeria. Catena 11: 91–96Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.J. STOORVOGEL
    • 1
  • N. VAN BREEMEN
    • 1
  • B.H. JASSEN
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Soil Science and GeologyAgricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Dept. of Soil Science and Plant NutritionAgricultural University, cP.O. Box 8005WageningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations