Advertisement

Natural Language & Linguistic Theory

, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 263–287 | Cite as

Licensing of Negative Polarity Items in Moroccan Arabic

  • Elabbas Benmamoun
Article

Abstract

This paper deals with the syntactic constraints on the licensing of the negative polarity item (NPI) hetta + NP ‘any NP‘ in Moroccan Arabic. It explores various asymmetries that arise in the context of the interaction between NPIs and the licensing negative head. These asymmetries raise various important issues that go to the heart of current syntactic debates concerning the appropriate syntactic configurations where certain syntactic relations must obtain. It is shown that the NPI hetta + NP ‘any NP‘ must be either c-commanded by or in overt Spec-head relation with the negative head ma ‘not‘ within the same clause. We explore hypotheses that dispense with this disjunction, such as overt M-command or Spec-head agreement plus LF movement. Finally, we show, on the basis of various arguments from reconstruction and locality, that such a reduction is not empirically viable.

Keywords

Artificial Intelligence Negative Polarity Polarity Item Syntactic Relation Negative Polarity Item 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aoun, Joseph: 1985, A Grammar of Anaphora, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  2. Aoun, Joseph and Dominique Sportiche: 1983, ‘On the Formal Theory of Government’, Linguistic Review 3, 211–235.Google Scholar
  3. Aoun, Joseph and Elabbas Benmamoun: 1996, ‘Minimality, Reconstruction, and PF Movement’, unpublished manuscript, University of Southern California and School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.Google Scholar
  4. Barss, Andrew: 1986. Chains and Anaphoric Dependence, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  5. Benmamoun, Elabbas: 1992, Inflectional and Functional Morphology: Problems of Projection, Representation and Derivation, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  6. Benmamoun, Elabbas: 1994, ‘Null Pronominals in the Context of NP and QP’, in J. Mead (ed.), Proceedings of WCCFL 11, CSLI Publications, Stanford, pp. 32–43.Google Scholar
  7. Chomsky, Noam: 1981, Lectures on Government and Binding, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  8. Chomsky, Noam: 1986, Barriers, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  9. Chomsky, Noam: 1993, ‘A Minimalist Program for Linguistic Theory’, in K. Hale and S. Keyser (eds.), View from Building 20: Essays in Honor of Sylvain Bromberger, MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 1–52.Google Scholar
  10. Cinque, Guglielmo: 1990, Types of Ā-Dependencies, MIT Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  11. Cowell, Mark: 1964, A Reference Grammar of Syrian Arabic, Georgetown University Press, Georgetown.Google Scholar
  12. Fassi Fehri, Abdelkader: 1993, Issues in the Structure Arabic Clauses and Words, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  13. Haegeman, Liliane and Raffaella Zanuttini: 1991: ‘Negative Heads and the Neg Criterion’, Linguistic Review 8, 233–251.Google Scholar
  14. Hirschbühler, Paul and Marie Labelle: 1994, ‘Changes in Verb Position in French Negative Infinitival Clauses’, Language Variation and Change 6, 149–178.Google Scholar
  15. Kaync, Richard: 1984, Connectedness and Binary Branching, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  16. Laka, Itziar: 1990, Negation in Syntax: On the Nature of Functional Categories and Projections, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  17. Longobardi, Giuseppe: 1991, ‘In Defense of the Correspondence Hypothesis: Island Effects and Parasitic Constructions in Logical Form’, in C-T. J. Huang and R. May (eds.), Logical Structure and Linguistic Structure, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 149–196.Google Scholar
  18. Milner, Jean-Claude: 1979, ‘Le Système de la Négation en Français et l'Opacité du Sujet’, Langage Française 41, 80–105.Google Scholar
  19. Mohammad, Mohammad: 1989, The Sentence Structure of Arabic, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Southern California.Google Scholar
  20. Moritz, Luc and Daniel Valois: 1994, ‘Pied-Piping and Specifier-head Agreement’, Linguistic Inquiry 25, 667–707.Google Scholar
  21. Ouhalla, Jamal: 1992, ‘Focus in Standard Arabic’, Linguistics in Potsdam 1, 65–92.Google Scholar
  22. Pollock, Jean-Yves: 1989, ‘Verb Movement, UG and the Structure of IP’, Linguistic Inquiry 20, 365–424.Google Scholar
  23. Progovac, Liliane: 1994, Negative and Positive Polarity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  24. Reinhart, Tanya: 1976, The Syntactic Domain of Anaphora, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, MIT.Google Scholar
  25. Rizzi, Luigi: 1982, Issues in Italian Syntax, Foris, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  26. Zanuttini, Rafaella: 1991, Syntactic Properties of Sentential Negation: A Comparative Study of Romance Languages, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elabbas Benmamoun
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Linguistics, School of Oriental and African StudiesUniversity of LondonRussell SquareLondon

Personalised recommendations