, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 205–221 | Cite as

Distribution of greenhouse gases, nitrite, and δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon in Lake Biwa: Implications for hypolimnetic metabolism



The vertical distribution of dissolved greenhouse gases (CH4,ΣCO2 and N2O), NO\({\text{NO}}_{\text{2}} - \),and δ13C of ΣCO2 in Lake Biwa during a stagnantperiod was precisely determined. ΣCO2 as well as NO\({\text{NO}}_{\text{3}} - \)was accumulated in the hypolimnion, whereas NO\({\text{NO}}_{\text{2}} - \) and CH4concen\-trations were generally higher in theepilimnion than in the hypolimnion. In August, NO\({\text{NO}}_{\text{2}} - \) andCH4 were ephemerally accumulated at the thermocline. Theconcentration of CH4 always exceeded equilibrium with respectto air/water exchange. N2O was rather uniformly distributed inboth time and space, and remained near equilibrium with respect toair/water exchange. All of these observations are similar to otherstratified, oligotrophic lakes, in which the hypolimnia were welloxygenated. The δ13C of ΣCO2 became morenegative with increasing depth, and showed a strong negativecorrelation with apparent oxygen utilization. From the data, the δ13Cvalue of organic matter decomposed into ΣCO2 inthe hypolimnion was calculated by isotope mass-balance, and found tobe in a similar range to δ13C of phytoplankton and benthic algaeand distinctively higher than δ13C of both terrestrial andsedimentary organic matters. This suggests that autochthonous organicmatter was the major source of ΣCO2.

autochthonous organic matter carbon dioxide decomposition methane nitrous oxide δ13


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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

    • 1
    • 2
    • 2
    • 3
    • 2
    • 2
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Marine Biochemistry, Ocean Research InstituteThe University of TokyoNakano, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Center for Ecological ResearchKyoto UniversityOtsuJapan
  3. 3.Lake Biwa Research InstituteOtsuJapan

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