Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 47, Issue 1–2, pp 141–165 | Cite as

Anthropogenic, Climatic, and Hydrologic Trends in the Kosi Basin, Himalaya

  • Keshav P. Sharma
  • Berrien MooreIII
  • Charles J. Vorosmarty
Article

Abstract

A great debate exists concerning theinfluence of land-use and climatic changes onhydrology in the Himalayan region and its adjacentplains. As a representative basin of the Himalayas, westudied basinwide land-use, climatic and hydrologictrends over the Kosi Basin (54,000 km2) in themountainous area of the central Himalayan region. Theassessment of anthropogenic inputs showed that thepopulation of the basin grew at a compound rate ofabout one percent per annum during the past fourdecades. The comparison of land-use data between thesurveys made during the 1960s and 1978–1979 did notreveal noticeable trends in land-use change. Theanalysis of meteorological and hydrological timeseries from 1947 to 1993 showed some increasingtendency of temperature and precipitation. Thestatistical tests of hydrologic trends indicated anoverall decrease in discharge on the Kosi River andits major tributaries. The decreasing trends ofstreamflow were more significant during the low-flowmonths. The statistical analysis of homogeneityshowed that the climatic as well as the hydrologictrends were more localized in nature lacking adistinct basinwide significance.

Keywords

Precipitation Climatic Change Himalayan Region Anthropogenic Input Major Tributary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Applegate, G. B. and Gilmour, D. A.: 1987, 'Operational Experiences in Forest Management Development in the Hills of Nepal', International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, ICIMOD Occasional Paper No. 6.Google Scholar
  2. Bajracharya, D.: 1983, 'Fuel, Food or Forest? Dilemmas in a Nepali Village', World Dev. 11, 1057–1074.Google Scholar
  3. Bajracharya, M. K.: 1985, 'Forests', in Majupuria, T. C. (ed.), Nepal Nature's Paradise, White Lotus Co. Ltd., Bangkok, pp. 112–129.Google Scholar
  4. Belle, G. V. and Hughes, J. P.: 1984, 'Nonparametric Tests for Trend in Water Quality', Water Resour. Res. 20, 127–136.Google Scholar
  5. Bruijnzeel, L. A. and Bremmer, C. N.: 1989, 'Highland Lowland Interaction in the Ganges Brahmaputra River Basin-A Review of Published Literature', International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, ICIMOD Occasional Paper No. 11.Google Scholar
  6. Bulatao, R. A., Bos, E., Stephens, P. W., and Vu, M. T.: 1990, World Population Projections, The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, p. 421.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, A. S. and Gilmour, D. A.: 1989, 'Increase in Tree Cover on Private Farm Land in Central Nepal', Mount. Res. Dev. 9, 381–391.Google Scholar
  8. CBS: 1987, Population Monograph of Nepal, Central Bureau of Statistics Author, Kathmandu, p. 358.Google Scholar
  9. CBS: 1993, Statistical Yearbook of Nepal 1993, Central Bureau of Statistics, Kathmandu, p. 499.Google Scholar
  10. Claire, S.: 1976, 'Nepal', Atlantic Monthly 238, 14–25.Google Scholar
  11. Denniston, D.: 1993, 'Saving the Himalayas', World Watch 6, 10–21.Google Scholar
  12. Department of Forest: 1973, Forest Statistics for the Hill Region, Kathmandu, p. 153.Google Scholar
  13. Dingman, S. L.: 1994, Physical Hydrology, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, p. 575.Google Scholar
  14. Eckholm, E. P.: 1975, 'The Deterioration of Mountain Environment Ecological Stress in the Highlands of Asia, Latin America, and Africa Takes a Mounting Toll', Science 189, 764–770.Google Scholar
  15. Ekvall, R. B.: 1968, Fields on the Roof: Nexus of Tibetan Nomadic Pastoralism, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar
  16. Fox, J.: 1993, 'Forest Resources in a Nepali Village in 1980 and 1990: The Positive Influence of Population Growth', Mount. Res. Dev. 13, 89–98.Google Scholar
  17. Gilmour, D. A.: 1991, 'Trends in Forest Resources and Management in the Middle Mountains of Nepal', in Soil Fertility and Erosion Issues in the Middle Mountains of Nepal, Dhulikhel, Integrated Survey Section, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  18. Gurung, H. B.: 1991, 'Population of Nepal 1991: Towards the Terai and Towns', Spotlight, 27–29.Google Scholar
  19. Helsel, D. R. and Hirsch, R. M.: 1992, Statistical Methods in Water Resources, Elsevier, New York, p. 522.Google Scholar
  20. Hingane, L. S.: 1996, 'Is a Signature of Socio-Economic Impact Written on the Climate', Clim. Change 32, 91–102.Google Scholar
  21. Hingane, L. S., Kumar, K. R., and Murty, B. V. R.: 1985, 'Long-Term Trends of Surface Air Temperature in India', J. Climatol. 5, 521–528.Google Scholar
  22. Hirsch, R. M. and Slack, J. R.: 1984, 'A Nonparametric Trend Test for Seasonal Data with Serial Dependence', Water Resour. Res. 20, 727–732.Google Scholar
  23. Ives, I. D. and Messerli, B.: 1989, The Himalayan Dilemma, Reconciling Development and Conservation, Routledge, London, p. 295.Google Scholar
  24. Jacobsen, J. L.: 1988, 'Recent Floods are Natural Disasters', World Watch 1, 46–47.Google Scholar
  25. Kadota, T. and Ageta, Y.: 1992, 'On the Relation between Climate and Retreat of Glacier AX010 in the Nepal Himalaya from 1978 to 1989', Bull. Glacier Res. 10, 1–10.Google Scholar
  26. Karl, T. R., Jones, P. D., Knight, R. W., Kukla, G., Plummer, N., Razuvayev, V., Gallo, K. P., Lindesay, J., and Charlson, T. C.: 1995, 'Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature: Empirical Evidence and Possible Causes', in Natural Climate Variability on Decade-to-Century Time Scales, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 80–96.Google Scholar
  27. Kattlemann, R.: 1990, 'Conflicts and Cooperation over Floods in the Himalayas-Ganges Region', Water Int. 15, 189–194.Google Scholar
  28. Kendall, M. and Ord, J. K.: 1990, Time Series, Edward Arnold, Kent, p. 296.Google Scholar
  29. Kothyari, U. C. and Singh, V. P.: 1996, 'Rainfall and Temperature Trends in India', Hydrol. Proc. 10, 357–372.Google Scholar
  30. Lee, R.: 1980, Forest Hydrology, Columbia University Press, New York, p. 349.Google Scholar
  31. LIGG/WECS/NEA: 1988, 'Report on First Expedition to Glaciers and Glacier Lakes in the Pumqu (Arun) and Poiqu (Bhote-Sunkosi) River Basins, Xizang(Tibet), China', Lanzhou Institute of Glaciology and Geocryology, China; Water and Energy Commission, Nepal; Nepal Electricity Authority, Nepal.Google Scholar
  32. Mahat, T. S.: 1987, 'Forestry-Farming Linkages in the Mountains', International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, ICIMOD Occasional Paper No. 7.Google Scholar
  33. Mayewski, P. A. and Jeschke, P. A.: 1979, 'Himalayan and Trans-Himalayan Glacier Fluctuations since AD 1812', Arct. Alp. Res. 11, 267–287.Google Scholar
  34. Meher-homji, V. M.: 1991, 'Probable Impact of Deforestation on Hydrological Processes', Clim. Change 19, 163–173.Google Scholar
  35. Messerschmidt, D. A.: 1987, 'Conservation and Society in Nepal: Traditional Forest Management and Innovative Development', in Little, P. D. and Horowitz, M. M. (eds.), Lands at Risk in the Third World: Local-Level Perspective, Westview Press, Boulder, pp. 373–397.Google Scholar
  36. Moddie, A. D.: 1981, 'Himalayan Environment', in Lall, J. S (ed.), The Himalaya: Aspect of Change, Oxford University Press, Delhi, pp. 342–350.Google Scholar
  37. Mooley, D. A. and Parthasarathy, B.: 1984, 'Fluctuations in All-India Summer Monsoon Rainfall during 1871–1978', Clim. Change 6, 287–301.Google Scholar
  38. Myers, N.: 1986, 'Environmental Repercussions of Deforestation in the Himalayas', J. World For. Resour. Manage. 2, 63–72.Google Scholar
  39. Myers, N.: 1988, 'Tropical Deforestation and Climate Change', Environ. Conservat. 15, 293–298.Google Scholar
  40. Parthasarathy, B. and Mooley, D. A.: 1978, 'Some Features of a Long Homogeneous Series of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall', Mon. Wea. Rev. 106, 771–781.Google Scholar
  41. Reilly, J.: 1996, 'Agriculture in a Changing Climate', in Watson, R. T. (ed.), Climate Change 1995-Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analysis, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 427–467.Google Scholar
  42. Rieger, H. C.: 1981, 'Man versus Mountain: The Destruction of the Himalayan Ecosystem', in Lall, J. S. (ed.), The Himalaya: Aspects of Change, Oxford University Press, New Delhi, pp. 341–376.Google Scholar
  43. Rogers, P., Lydon, P., and Seckler, D.: 1989, Eastern Waters Study: Strategies to Manage Flood and Drought in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Basin, Irrigation Support Project for Asia and the Near East, Arlington, OR, p. 83.Google Scholar
  44. Rongzu, Z.: 1989, 'Case Study on Mountain Environmental Management: Nyemo County', International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, ICIMOD Occasional Paper No. 13.Google Scholar
  45. SAS: 1993, SAS/ETS User's Guide Version 6, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, p. 1022.Google Scholar
  46. Sharma, K. P.: 1997, 'Impact of Land-Use and Climatic Changes on Hydrology of the Himalayan Basin: A Case Study of the Kosi Basin', Ph.D. Thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham.Google Scholar
  47. Shrestha, T. B.: 1989, 'Development Ecology of the Arun River Basin in Nepal', International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  48. Smith, R. A., Hirsch, R. M., and Slack, J. R.: 1982, 'A Study of Trends in Total Phosphorus Measurement at NASQAN Station', United States Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper No. 2190.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, W. E.: 1988, 'A Country under Water', Time, 30–31.Google Scholar
  50. Srivastava, H. N., Dewan, B. N., Dikshit, S. K., Rao, G. S. P., Singh, S. S., and Rao, K. R.: 1992, 'Decadal Trends in Climate over India', Mausam 43, 7–20.Google Scholar
  51. Survey Department: 1984, 'Land Utilization Map', Kathmandu.Google Scholar
  52. Swaminathan, M. S.: 1987, 'Abnormal Monsoons and Economic Consequences: The Indian Experiences', in Fein, J. S. and Stephens, P. L. (eds.), Monsoons, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 121–133.Google Scholar
  53. User Group: 1995, 'User Group Restore Greenery around Valley', Kathmandu Post, 4 Nov. 1995.Google Scholar
  54. Vinikov, Y. K., Groisman, P. Y., and Lugina, K. M.: 1994, 'Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies from Instrumental Surface Air Temperature Records', in Trend '93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, ORNL/CDIAC-65, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., pp. 615–627.Google Scholar
  55. World Bank: 1984, 'World Development Report 1984', Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  56. World Weather Records: Various Years, Environmental Science Services Administration, Environmental Data Service, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  57. Yamada, T., Takayuki, S., Hajime, I., Kadota, T., Watanabe, T., Rana, B., Ageta, Y., and Fushimi, H.: 1992, 'Fluctuations of the Glaciers from the 1970s to 1989 in the Khumbu, Shorong and Langtang Regions, Nepal Himalayas', Bull. Glacier Res. 10, 11–19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keshav P. Sharma
    • 1
  • Berrien MooreIII
    • 2
  • Charles J. Vorosmarty
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Hydrology and MeteorologyKathmanduNepal
  2. 2.Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and SpaceUniversity of New HampshireDurhamU.S.A.
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesUniversity of New HampshireDurhamU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations