Climatic Change

, Volume 46, Issue 4, pp 473–483

Climatic Warming in the Spanish Mediterranean: Natural Trend or Urban Effect

  • J. Quereda Sala
  • A. Gil Olcina
  • A. Perez Cuevas
  • J. Olcina Cantos
  • A. Rico Amoros
  • E. Montón Chiva
Article

Abstract

The evolution of the mean annual temperatures recordedin the major historical network of SpanishMediterranean observatories(36°N–45°/60°W–4°E)exhibits a significant warming trend. Analysis of thetrend is difficult and could be biased by non-climaticprocesses such as the urban effect and weather stationrelocation, which also need to be taken intoaccount.The present work examines the effects of non-climaticprocesses and shows that most of the temperature risecould be due to an urban effect. On correcting for theurban effect, the actual rise was found to be zero ornegligible. The assumption of temperature stability inthe Spanish Mediterranean should thereforenot be rejected.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexandersson, H.: 1986, ‘A Homogeneity Test Applied to Precipitation Data’, Int. J. Clim. 6, 661–675.Google Scholar
  2. Alexandersson, H. and Moberg, A.: 1997, ‘Homogenization of Swedish Temperature Data. Part I: Homogeneity Test for Linear Trends’, Int. J. Clim. 17, 25–34.Google Scholar
  3. Boden, T. A., Kaiser, D. P., Sepanski, R. J., and Stoss, F. W. (eds.): 1994, ‘Trends ‘93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change’, ORNL/CDIAC-65, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, p. 984.Google Scholar
  4. Briffa, K. R. and Jones, P. D.: 1993, ‘Global Surface Air Temperature Variations during the Twentieth Century: Part 2, Implications for Large-Scale High-Frequency Palaeoclimatic Studies’, Holocene 3, 77–88.Google Scholar
  5. Colacino, M. and Rovelli, A.: 1983, ‘The Yearly Average Air Temperature in Rome from 1782 to 1975’, Tellus 35A, 389–397.Google Scholar
  6. Dettwiller, J.: 1978, ‘L’évolution séculaire de la température à Paris’, La Météorologie VI (13), 95–130.Google Scholar
  7. Easterling, D. R., Horton, B., Jones, P. D., Peterson, T. C., Karl, T. R., Parker, D. E., Salinger, M. J., Razuvayev, V., Plummer, N., Jamason, P., and Folland, C. K.: 1997, ‘Maximum and Minimum Temperatures Trends for the Globe’, Science 277, 364–367.Google Scholar
  8. Hansen, J. and Lebedeff, S.: 1988, ‘Global Surface Air Temperatures: Update through 1987’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 323–326.Google Scholar
  9. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1990: ‘Climate Change: the IPCC Scientific Assessment’, Houghton, J. T., Jenkins, G. J., and Ephraums, J. J. (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., p. 365.Google Scholar
  10. IPCC, 1992: ‘Climate Change: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment’, Houghton, J. T., Callender, B. A., and Varney, S. K. (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., p. 198.Google Scholar
  11. IPCC, 1996: ‘Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change: Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’, Houghton, J. J., Meiro Filho, L. G., Callander, B. A., Harris, N., Kattenberg, A., and Maskell, K. (eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., p. 584.Google Scholar
  12. Jones, P. D.: 1994a, ‘Hemispheric Surface Air Temperatures Variations: A Reanalysis and an Update to 1993’, J. Climate 7, 1794–1802.Google Scholar
  13. Jones, P. D.: 1994b, ‘Recent Warming in Global Temperature Series’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1149–1152.Google Scholar
  14. Jones, P. D. and Briffa, K. R.: 1992, ‘Global Surface Air Temperature Variations during the Twentieth Century: Part 1, Spatial, Temporal and Seasonal Details’, Holocene 2, 165–179.Google Scholar
  15. Jones, P. D., Groisman, P. YA., Coughlan, M., Plummer, N., Wang, W-C., and Karl, T. R.: 1990, ‘Assessment of Urbanization Effects in Time Series of Surface Air Temperature over Land', Nature 347, 169–172.Google Scholar
  16. Jones, P. D., Kelly, P. M., and Goodess, C. M. 1989, ‘The Effects of Urban Warming on the Northern Hemisphere Temperature Average’, J. Climate 2, 285–290.Google Scholar
  17. Jones, P. D., Wigley, T. M. L., and Briffa, K. R.: 1994, ‘Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies-Land and Marine Instrumental Records’, in Boden, T. A., Kaiser, D. P., Sepanski, R. J., and Stoss, F. W. (eds.), ‘93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, ORNL/CDIAC-65, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, pp. 603–608.Google Scholar
  18. Karl, T. R., Diaz, H. F., and Kukla, G.: 1988, ‘Urbanization: Its Detection and Effect in the United States Climate Record', J. Climate 1, 1099–1123.Google Scholar
  19. Kelly, P. M., Jones, P. D., Wigley, T. M. L., Bradley, R. S., Diaz, H. F., and Goodess, C.: 1985, ‘The Extended Northern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature Record: 1851-1984’, in Preprints, Third Conference on Climate Variations and Symposium on Contemporary Climate; 1850-2100, Amer. Meteorol. Soc., Boston, pp. 23–24.Google Scholar
  20. Kukla, G., Gavin, J., and Karl, T. R.: 1986, ‘Urban Warming’, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol. 25, 1265–1270.Google Scholar
  21. Lamarque, Ph. and Jourdain, S.: 1994, ‘Élaboration de longues séries climatologiques homogènes pour l’étude de l’évolution climatique’, La Météorologie 8 (7), 61–69.Google Scholar
  22. Lee, D. O.: 1992, ‘Urban Warming?-An Analysis of Recent Trends in London's Heat Island', Weather 47 (2), 50–56.Google Scholar
  23. Lockwood, J. G.: 1998, ‘Future Trends in Daytime and Night-Time Temperatures’, Weather 53 (3), 72–78.Google Scholar
  24. López Gómez, A., Fernández García, F., Arroyo, F., Martín-Vide, J., and Cuadrat, J. Ma.: 1993, El clima de las ciudades españolas, Cátedra, S. A. (ed.), p. 268.Google Scholar
  25. Mass, C. and Schneider, S. H.: 1977, ‘Influence of Sunspot and Volcanic Dust on Longterm Temperature Records Inferred by Statistical Investigations’, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1995–2004.Google Scholar
  26. Mitchell Jr., J. M., Dzerdzeevskii, B., Flohn, H., Hofmeyr, W. L., Lamb, H. H., Rao, K. N., and Wallén, C. C.: 1966, ‘Climatic Change’, Technical Note No. 79, WMO, Ginebra, p. 78.Google Scholar
  27. Moberg, A. and Alexandersson, H.: 1997, ‘Homogenization of Swedish Temperature Data. Part II: Homogenized Gridded Air Temperature Compared with a Subset of Global Gridded Air Temperature since 1861’, Int. J. Climatol. 17, 35–54.Google Scholar
  28. NASA Climate Data System Staff: 1992, ‘Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment’, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Rapport NASA at Space Agency Forum on the International Space Year 1992.Google Scholar
  29. Quereda, J.: 1992, "significant Warming Trend in the Spanish Mediterranean’, Weather, 274-275.Google Scholar
  30. Quereda Sala, J. and Monton Chiva, E.: 1994, ¿Hacia un cambio climático?, Universidad Jaume I, p. 27.Google Scholar
  31. Quereda Sala, J., Olcina Cantos, J., and Monton Chiva, E.: 1996, ‘Red Dust Rain within the Spanish Mediterranean Area’, Clim. Change 32, 215–228.Google Scholar
  32. Schneider, S. H.: 1983, ‘Volcanic Dust Veils and Climate: How Clear Is the Connection?’, Clim. Change 5, 111–113.Google Scholar
  33. Sneyers, R.: 1975, ‘Sur l’analyse statistique des séries d'observations’, Note Technique No. 143, Organisation Météorologique Mondiale, Genève, p. 192.Google Scholar
  34. Vandiepenbeeck, M.: 1995, ‘Détection practique de changement de climat dans le cas d'une alternative au caractère aléatoire’, Publications de l’Association Internationale de Climatologie 8, 116–124.Google Scholar
  35. Vinnikov, K. Ya., Groisman, P. Ya., and Lugina, K. M.: 1990, ‘Empirical Data on Contemporary Global Climate Changes (Temperature and Precipitation)’, J. Climate 3, 662–677.Google Scholar
  36. Vinnikov, K. Ya., Groisman, P. Ya., and Lugina, K. M.: 1994, ‘Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies from Instrumental Surface Air Temperature Records’, in Boden, T. A., Kaiser, D. P., Sepanski, R. J., and Stoss, F. W. (eds.), ‘93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, ORNL/CDIAC-65, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, pp. 615–627.Google Scholar
  37. Wilson, H. and Hansen, J.: 1994, ‘Global and Hemispheric Temperature Anomalies from Instrumental Surface Air Temperature Records’, in Boden, T. A., Kaiser, D. P., Sepanski, R. J., and Stoss, F. W. (eds.), ‘93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, ORNL/CDIAC-65, Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, pp. 609–614.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Quereda Sala
    • 1
  • A. Gil Olcina
    • 2
  • A. Perez Cuevas
    • 3
  • J. Olcina Cantos
    • 2
  • A. Rico Amoros
    • 2
  • E. Montón Chiva
    • 1
  1. 1.`Jaume I' University Weather Station, Ctra. Borriol s/nCastellónSpain
  2. 2.Alicante UniversitySpain
  3. 3.Valencia UniversitySpain

Personalised recommendations