Climatic Change

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 9–52 | Cite as

"Little Ice Age" Research: A Perspective from Iceland

  • A.E.J. Ogilvie
  • T. Jónsson


The development during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries of the sciences of meteorology and climatology and their subdisciplines has made possible an ever-increasing understanding of the climate of the past. In particular, the refinement of palaeoclimatic proxy data has meant that the climate of the past thousand years has begun to be extensively studied. In the context of this research, it has often been suggested that a warm epoch occurred in much of northern Europe, the north Atlantic, and other parts of the world, from around the ninth through the fourteenth centuries, and that this was followed by a decline in temperatures culminating in a "Little Ice Age" from about 1550 to 1850 (see e.g. Lamb, 1965, 1977; Flohn, 1978). The appelations "Medieval Warm Period" and "Little Ice Age" have entered the literature and are frequently used without clear definition. More recently, however, these terms have come under closer scrutiny (see, e.g. Ogilvie, 1991, 1992; Bradley and Jones, 1992; Mikami, 1992; Briffa and Jones, 1993; Bradley and Jones, 1993; Hughes and Diaz, 1994; Jones et al., 1998; Mann et al., 1999; Crowley and Lowery, 2000). As research continues into climatic fluctuations over the last 1000 to 2000 years, a pattern is emerging which suggests a far more complex picture than early research into the history of climate suggested. In this paper, the origins of the term "Little Ice Age" are considered. Because of the emphasis on the North Atlantic in this volume, the prime focus is on research that has been undertaken in this region, with a perspective on the historiography of historical climatology in Iceland as well as on the twentieth-century climate of Iceland. The phrase "Little Ice Age" has become part of the scientific and popular thinking on the climate of the past thousand years. However, as knowledge of the climate of the Holocene continues to grow, the term now seems to cloud rather than clarify thinking on the climate of the past thousand years. It is hoped that the discussion here will encourage future researchers to focus their thinking on exactly and precisely what is meant when the term "Little Ice Age" is used.

Climate Variability Historical Climatology Iceland "Little Ice Age" "Medieval Warm Period" Sea Ice 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Annálar 1400–1800, I–VII: 1922–1998, Hið íslenska bókmenntafélag, Reykjavík.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous: 1917, ‘The King's Mirror’ (Speculum Regale — Konungs skuggsjá), translated by Larson, M., in Scandinavian Monographs 3, The American Scandinavian Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Barlow, L. K.: 1994, Evaluation of seasonal to decadal scale deuterium and deuterium excess signals, GISP2 ice core, Summit, Greenland, A.D. 1270–1985, Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  4. Barlow, L. K.: 2001, ‘The Time Period AD 1400–1800 in Central Greenland Ice Cores in Relation to the North Atlantic Sector’, this volume.Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, L. K., Sadler, J. P., Ogilvie, A. E. J., Buckland, P. C., Amorosi, T., Ingimundarson, J. H., Skidmore, P., Dugmore A. J., and McGovern, T. H.: 1997, ‘Interdisciplinary investigations of the end of the Norse Western Settlement in Greenland’, Holocene 7, 489–499.Google Scholar
  6. Bartholin, T. S. and Karlén, W.: 1983, ‘Dendrokronologi i Lapland AD 436-1981’, Dendrokronologiska Sällskapet, Meddelanden 5, 3–16.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, A. E.: 1992, ‘Inferring past climate change from subsurface temperature profiles: some problems and methods’, Global and Planetery Change 6, 73–80.Google Scholar
  8. Bell, W. T. and Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1978, ‘Weather Compilations as a Source of Data for the Reconstruction of European Climate During the Medieval Period’, Climatic Change 1, 331–348.Google Scholar
  9. Beltrami, H. and Mareschal J.-C.: 1995, ‘Resolution of ground temperature histories inverted from borehole temperature data’, Global and Planetary Change 11, 57–70Google Scholar
  10. BergÞórsson, P.: 1967, ‘Kuldaskeið um 1300?’ (A cold period at 1300?), Veðrið 12, 55–58Google Scholar
  11. BergÞórsson, P.: 1969a, ‘An estimate of drift ice and temperature in Iceland in 1000 years’, Jökull 19, 95–101.Google Scholar
  12. BergÞórsson, P.: 1969b, ‘Hafís og hitastig á liðnum öldum’, (Sea ice and temperatures in earlier centuries) in Einarsson, M. Á. (ed.), Hafísinn, Almenna bókafélagið, Reykjavík 1969, pp. 333–345.Google Scholar
  13. BergÞórsson, P.: 1985, ‘Sensitivity of Icelandic Agriculture to Climatic Variations’, Climatic Change 7, 111–127.Google Scholar
  14. BergÞórsson, P.: 1997, Vínlandsgátan (The Vinland mystery), Mál og menning, Reyjavík.Google Scholar
  15. Bond, G., Showers, W., Cheseby, M., Lotti, R., Almasi, P., deMenocal, P., Priore, P., Cullen, H., Hajdas, I., and Bonani, G.: 1997, ‘A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates’, Science 278, 1257–1266.Google Scholar
  16. Bradley, R. S. and Jones, P.D.: 1992, ‘Climatic variations over the last 500 years’, in Bradley, R. S. and Jones P. D. (eds), Climate since A.D. 1500, London, Routledge, pp. 649–665Google Scholar
  17. Bradley, R. S. and Jones, P. D.: 1993, “Little Ice Age' summer temperature variations: their nature and relevance to recent global warming trends', Holocene 3 367–376.Google Scholar
  18. Briffa, K. R.: 2000, ‘Annual climate variability in the Holocene: interpreting the message of ancient trees’, Quarternary Science Reviews 19, 87–105Google Scholar
  19. Briffa, K. R., Bartholin, T. S., Eckstein, D., Jones, P. D., Karlén, W., Schweingruber, F. H., and Zetterberg, P.: 1990, ‘A 1,400-year tree-ring record of summer temperatures in Fennoscandia’, Nature 346, 434–439.Google Scholar
  20. Briffa, K. R., Jones, P. D., Bartholin, T. S., Eckstein, D., Schweingruber, F. H., Karlén, W., and Zetterberg, P.: 1992, ‘Fennoscandian summers from AD 500: temperature changes on short and long timescales’, Climate Dynamics 7, 111–119.Google Scholar
  21. Briffa, K. R. and Jones, P. D.: 1993, ‘Global surface air temperature variations during the twentieth century: Part 2, Implications for large-scale high-frequency palaeoclimatic studies’, Holocene 3, 77–88.Google Scholar
  22. Briffa, K. R. and Jones, P. D.: 1994, ‘Summer temperatures across northern North America: Regional reconstructions from 1760 using tree-ring densities’, Journal of Geophysical Research 99, 25,835–25,844.Google Scholar
  23. Broecker, W., Sutherland, S., and Peng, T.-H.: 1999, ‘A possible 20th-century slowdown of Southern Ocean deep water formation’ Science 286, 1132–1135.Google Scholar
  24. Buckland, P. C. and Wagner, P. E.: 2001, ‘Is There an Insect Signal for the “Little Ice Age?’, this volume.Google Scholar
  25. Bull, E.: 1915, ‘Islands klima i Oldtiden’ (Medieval Climate of Iceland), Geografisk Tidskrift 23, 1–5.Google Scholar
  26. Callendar, G. S.: 1938, ‘The artificial production of carbon dioxide and its influence on temperature’, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 64, 223–240.Google Scholar
  27. Cermák, V.: 1971, ‘Underground temperature and inferred climatic temperature of the past millennium’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 10, 1–19.Google Scholar
  28. Clow, G. D.: 1992, ‘The extent of temporal smearing in surface-temperature histories derived from borehole temperature measurements’, Global and Planetary Change 6, 81–100.Google Scholar
  29. Clow, G. D., Saltus, R. W., and Waddington, E. D.: 1996, ‘A new high-precision borehole-temperature logging system used at GISP2, Greenland, and Taylor Dome, Antarctica’, Journal of Glaciology 42, 576–584.Google Scholar
  30. Crowley, T. J.: 2000, ‘Causes of climate changes over the past 1000 years’, Science 289, 270–277.Google Scholar
  31. Crowley, T. J. and Lowery, T. S.: 2000, ‘How warm was the Medieval Warm Period?’, Ambio, 29, 51–54.Google Scholar
  32. Cuffey, K. M. and Clow, G. D.: 1997, ‘Temperature, accumulation, and ice sheet elevation in central Greenland through the last deglacial transition’, Journal of Geophysical Research 102, 26383–26396.Google Scholar
  33. Dahl-Jensen, D., Mosegaard, K., Gundestrup, N., Clow, G. D., Johnsen, S. J., Hansen, A. W., and Balling, N.: 1998, ‘Past temperatures directly from the Greenland ice sheet’, Science 282, 268–271.Google Scholar
  34. Dansgaard, W.: 1964, ‘Stable isotopes in precipitation’, Tellus 16, 436–438.Google Scholar
  35. Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S. J., Reeh, N., Gundestrup, N., Clausen, H. B., and Hammer, C. U.: 1975, ‘Climatic changes, Norsemen and modern man’, Nature 225, 24–28.Google Scholar
  36. Doner, L. A.: 1999, ‘Late-Holocene paleoclimate records from northwest Iceland lake sediments’, Abstracts with programs, 31, Geological Society of America, 31st Annual Meeting, Denver, Oct. 25–28, 1999, p. A 315.Google Scholar
  37. Doner, L. A. and Overpeck, J. T.: 1995, ‘Comparison of late-Holocene pollen records from Ogac lake with other Baffin Island records: is there a Little Ice Age signal?’, Abstracts, 25th International Arctic Workshop, 16–18 March, 1995, Universitë Laval, Quebec City, Quebec, pp. 30–31.Google Scholar
  38. Ehrenheim, F. V. von: 1824, Om Climaternes rörlighet, Kongl. Vetenskaps Academien, Stockholm, 1824.Google Scholar
  39. Ekholm, N.: 1899, ‘Om klimatets ändringar i geologisk och historisk tid samt deras orsaker’, Ymer 1899, 353–403.Google Scholar
  40. EyÞórsson, J.: 1926, ‘Um loftslagsbreytingar á Íslandi og Grænlandi síðan á landnámsöld’ (On climatic changes in Iceland and Greenland since settlement times), Skírnir 100, 113–133.Google Scholar
  41. EyÞórsson, J.: 1949, ‘Temperature variations in Iceland’ in Mannerfelt, C. M. (ed.), Glaciers and climate: geophysical and geomorphological essays dedicated to Hans W:son Ahlmann, Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi, Stockholm, pp. 36–55.Google Scholar
  42. EyÞórsson, J.: 1950, ‘Hitafarsbreytingar á Íslandi’ (Temperature variations in Iceland), Náttúrufrœðingurinn, 20, 67–85.Google Scholar
  43. EyÞórsson, J.: 1965, ‘Hafís og ísrek’ (Sea ice and sea-ice drift), Veðrið 10, 22–29.Google Scholar
  44. EyÞórsson, J.: 1966, ‘Mildir vetur á Íslandi’ (Mild winters in Iceland), Veðrið 11, 3–8.Google Scholar
  45. Finnsson, H.: 1796, ‘Um Mannfæckun af Hallærum á Íslandi’ (Depopulation and Famine in Iceland), Rit Lœrdómslistafélags 14, 30–226.Google Scholar
  46. Finnsson, H.: 1970, Mannfœkkun af hallœrum, EyÞórsson, J. and Nordal, J. (eds), (A second annotated ed. of Finnsson (1796)), Almenna bókafélagið, ReykjavíkGoogle Scholar
  47. Flohn, H.: 1978, ‘Die Zukunft unseres Klimas: Fakten und Probleme’, Promet 8, 1–21.Google Scholar
  48. Flohn, H. and Fantechi, R. (eds): 1984, The climate of Europe: Past, present and future, D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Boston, LancasterGoogle Scholar
  49. Friedmann, A., Moore, J. C., Thorsteinsson, Th., Kipfstuhl, J., and Fischer, H.: 1995, ‘A 1200 year record of accumulation from northern Greenland’, Annals of Glaciology 21, 19–25.Google Scholar
  50. Geirsdóttir, Á., Harðardóttir, J., and Andrews, J. T.: 2000, ‘Late-Holocene terrestrial glacial history of Miki and I. C. Jacobsen Fjords, East Greenland’, Holocene 10, 123–134.Google Scholar
  51. Grove, A. T., 2001, ‘The “Little Ice Age” and its Geomorphological Consequences in Mediterrcan Europe’, this volume.Google Scholar
  52. Grove, J. M.: 1988, The Little Ice Age, Methuen, London and New York.Google Scholar
  53. Grove, J. M.: 1996, ‘Little Ice Ages’, an entry in Schneider, S. (ed.): Encyclopedia of climate and weather vol. 2, Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford, 1996, pp. 475–478.Google Scholar
  54. Grove, J. M.: 2001, ‘The Initiation of the “Little Ice Age” in Regions around the North Atlantic’, this volume.Google Scholar
  55. Grove, J. M. and Switzur, R.: 1994, ‘Glacial Geological Evidence for the Medieval Warm Period’, Climatic Change 26, 143–169.Google Scholar
  56. Guðmundsson, H. J.: 1997, ‘A review of the Holocene environmental history of Iceland’, Quaternary Science Reviews 16, 81–92.Google Scholar
  57. Harðardóttir, J., Geirsdóttir, Á., and Thórdarson, Th.: in press, ‘Tephra layers in a sediment core from Lake Hestvatn, S-Iceland: implications for evaluating sedimentation processes and environmental impact of tephra fall deposits in th surrounding watershed’, in White, J. and Riggs, N., (eds), Sedimentologists (IAS) Special Publication, Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  58. Hildebrandsson, H. H.: 1915, ‘Sur le prédendu changement du climat Européen en temps historique’, Nova acta regiae societatis scientarium upsaliensis, Ser. IV, vol. 4,N. 5.Google Scholar
  59. Houghton, J. T., Meira Filho, L. G., Callander, B. A., Harris, N., Kattenberg, A., and Maskell, K. (eds): 1996, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  60. Hoyle, F., Godwin, H., Manley, G., and Brooks, C. E. P.: 1949, ‘Discussions — Post-glacial climatic change’, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 75, 161–185.Google Scholar
  61. Huang, S., Shen, P. Y., and Pollack, H. N.: 1996, ‘Deriving century-long trends of surface temperature change from borehole temperatures’, Geophysical Research Letters 23, 257–260.Google Scholar
  62. Huang, S., Pollack, H. N., and Shen, P.: 2000, ‘Temperature trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole temperatures’, Nature 403, 756–758.Google Scholar
  63. Hughen, K. A., Overpeck, J. T., and Anderson, R. F.: 2000, ‘Recent warming in a 500-year paleotemperature record from varved sediments of Upper Soper Lake, Baffin Island’, Holocene 10, 9–19.Google Scholar
  64. Hughes, M. K., and Diaz, H. F.: 1994, ‘Was there a “Medieval Warm Period”, and if so, Where and When?’, Climatic Change 26, 109–142.Google Scholar
  65. Jacobcit, J., Jönsson, P., Bärring, L., Beck, C., and Ekström, M.: 2001, ‘Zonal Indices for Europe 1780–1995 and Correlation with Temperature’, this volume.Google Scholar
  66. Jacoby, G. C., Workman, K. W., and D'Arrigo, R. D.: 1999, ‘Laki eruption of 1783, tree rings and disaster for northwest Alaska Inuit’, Quaternary Science Reviews 18, 1365–1371.Google Scholar
  67. Jennings, A. E. and Weiner, N. J.: 1996, ‘Environmental change in eastern Greenland during the last 1300 years: evidence from foraminifera and lithofacies in Nasen Fjord, 68°N’, Holocene 6, 179–191.Google Scholar
  68. Jennings, A. E., Hagen, S., Harðardóttir, J., Stein, R., Ogilvie, A. E. J., and Jónsdóttir, I.: 2001, ‘Oceanographic Change and Terrestrial Human Impacts in a Post AD 1400 Sediment Record from the Southwest Iceland Shelf’, this volume.Google Scholar
  69. Johnsen, S. J., Dansgaard, W. D., and White, J. W. C.: 1989, ‘The origin of Arctic precipitation under present and glacial conditions’, Tellus 41B, 452–468.Google Scholar
  70. Jones, P. D., Briffa, K. R., Barnett, T. P., and Tett, S. F. B.: 1998, ‘High-resolution palaeoclimatic records for the last millennium: interpretation, integration and comparison with general circulation model control-run temperatures’, Holocene 8, 455–471.Google Scholar
  71. Jones, P. D., New, M., Parker, D. E., Martin, S., and Rigor, I. G.: 1999, ‘Surface air temperature and its changes over the past 150 Years’, Reviews of Geophysics 37, 173–199.Google Scholar
  72. Jones, P. D., Ogilvie, A. E. J., Davies, T. D., and Briffa, K. R.: 2001, ‘Climate and climate impacts: the last 1000 years: developments in research’, in Jones, P. D., Ogilvie, A. E. J., Davies, T. D. and Briffa, K. R. (eds), Climate and climate impacts: the last 1000 years, Kluwer Academic/Penum Publishing, in press.Google Scholar
  73. Jónsdóttir, I. and Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1997, ‘Sea ice off the coasts of Iceland in historical times’, in Lewkowicz A. G. and Kokel, S. V. (eds) Program and Abstracts, 27th Arctic Workshop, 27 February–2 March, 1997. University of Ottawa, Canada, pp. 124–125.Google Scholar
  74. Jönsson, P. and Holmquist, B.: 1995, ‘Wind direction in southern Sweden 1740–1992: Variation and correlation with temperature and zonality’, Theoretical and Applied Climatology 51, 183–198.Google Scholar
  75. Jönsson, P.: 1998, ‘Meteorological observations from Lund, southern Sweden, since 1740: wind direction’, in Frenzel, B. (ed). Documentary Climatic Evidence for 1750–1850 and the 14th century. Paläoklimaforschung 23, Special Issue: ESF Project “European Palaeoclimate and Man” 15, European Science Foundtion, Strasbourg, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, pp. 121–135.Google Scholar
  76. Jónsson, T.: 1989, Afturábak frá Stykkishólmi: Veðurathuganir Jóns Porsteinssonar landlœknis í Nesi og í Reykjavík (The observations of Jón Thorsteinsson in Nes and Reykjavík 1820–1854, and their relation to the Stykkishólmur series), Icelandic Meteorological Office report, Reykijavík.Google Scholar
  77. Jónsson, T.: 1998, ‘Reconstructing the temperature in Iceland from early instrumental observations: data availability and a status report’, in Frenzel, B. (ed) Documentary Climatic Evidence for 1750–1850 and the 14th century, Paläoklimaforschung 23, Special Issue: ESF Project “European Palaeoclimate and Man” 15, European Science Foundation, Strabourg, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, pp. 87–98.Google Scholar
  78. Jónsson, T. and Garðarsson, H.: 2001, ‘Early Instrumental Meteorological Observations in Iceland’, this volume.Google Scholar
  79. Jónsson, T. and Ogilvie A. E. J.: in preparation, ‘Temperature variations in Iceland 1775–2000’.Google Scholar
  80. Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Jenne, R., and Joseph, D.: 1996, ‘NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project’, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 77, 437–471.Google Scholar
  81. Karlén, W.: 1982, ‘Holocene glacier fluctuations in Scandinavia’, in Holocene Glaciers (ed.) Karlén, W., Striae, (Special issue), Uppsala 18, 26–34.Google Scholar
  82. Keeling, C. D. and Whorf, T. P.: 2000, ‘The 1800-year oceanic tidal cycle: a possible cause of rapid climate change’, PNAS 97, 3814–3819.Google Scholar
  83. Kirkbride, M. P. and Dugmore, A. J.: 2001, ‘Can Lichenometry be used to date the “Little Ice Age” Glacial Maximum in Iceland?’, this volume.Google Scholar
  84. Koch, L.: 1945, ‘The East Greenland Ice’, Meddelelser om Grønland 130(3), Koommisioen for Videnskabelige Undersøgelser i Grønland, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  85. Kreutz, K. J., Mayewski, P. A., Meeker, L. D., Twickler, M. S., Whitlow, S. I., and Pittalwala, I. I.: 1997, ‘Bipolar changes in atmospheric circulation during the Little Ice Age’, Science 277, 1294–1296.Google Scholar
  86. Kristjánsdóttir, S.: 1998. ‘Sources of climatic information in the manuscript collection of the National Library in Iceland’, in The Second Climate and History Conference, 7–11 September, 1998, Abstract Volume, Climatic Research Unit, Nowich, UK, p. 60.Google Scholar
  87. Lamb, H. H.: 1965, ‘The early medieval warm epoch and its sequel’, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 1, 13–37.Google Scholar
  88. Lamb, H. H.: 1977, ‘Climate: Present, Past and The Funter, Vol. 2, Climatic History and the Future’, Methuen, London.Google Scholar
  89. Landsberg, H. E.; 1985, ‘Historic weather data and early meteorological observations’, in Hecht, A.D. (ed.) Palaeoclimatic Analysis and Modelling, New York, Wiley, pp. 27–69.Google Scholar
  90. Lehn, W. H. and Schroeder, I. S.: 1979, ‘Polar mirages as aids to Norse navigation’, Polarforschung 49, 173–187.Google Scholar
  91. Manlcy, G.; 1974, ‘Central England temperatures: monthly means 1659 to 1973’, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc. 100, 389–405.Google Scholar
  92. Mann, M. E.: 2000, ‘Lessons for a new millennium’, Science 289, 253–254.Google Scholar
  93. Mann, M. E., Bradley, R. S., and Hughes, M. K.: 1998, ‘Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries,’, Nature 392, 779–787.Google Scholar
  94. Mann, M. E., Bradley, R. S., and Hughes, M. K.: 1999, ‘Northern Hemisphere temperature during the past millennium: inferences, uncertainties and limitations’, Geophysical Research Letters 26, 759–763.Google Scholar
  95. Matthes, F. E., Reid. H. F., Hobbs, W. H., Church, J. E., Martin, L., Osgood Field Jr., Wm, Trager, E. A., Parker, G. L., Kehrlein, O., Phillips, K. N., Cooper, W. S., FitzGerald, G., and Gould, L. M.: 1939, ‘Report of committee on glaciers, April 1939’, Transactions, AGU 20, 518–523.Google Scholar
  96. Mayewski, P. A., Mccker, L. D., Morrison, M. C., Twickler, M. S., Whitlow, S. I., Ferland, K. K., Meese, D. A., Legrand, M. R., and Steffensen, J. P.: 1993, ‘Greenland ice core “signal” characteristics: an expanded view of climatic change’, Journal of Geophysical Research 98 D 12839–12847.Google Scholar
  97. Mikami, T. (ed.): 1992, Proceedings of the International symposium on the Little Ice Age climate. Tokyo, Japan 1991, Editorial Committee of LIAC Proceedings, Department of Geography, Tokyo Metropolitan University.Google Scholar
  98. Moberg, A. and Bergström H.: 1997, ‘Homogenization of Swedish temperature data. Part III: The long temperature records from Stockholm and Uppsala’, International Journal of Climatology 17, 667–699.Google Scholar
  99. Nanscn, F.: 1925, ‘Klimat-vekslinger i Nordens Historie’, Avhandliner utgitt av Det norske viden-skaps-akademi, 1. Matematisk-naturvidneskapelig klasse 1925 3, 1–63.Google Scholar
  100. Nansen, F.: 1967, Hjá selum og hvítabjörnum (Icelandic translation of Nansen, F.: 1924, ‘Blandt sel og björn’), Ísafoldarprenstmiðja, Reykjavík.Google Scholar
  101. Nordli, P. Ø.: 2001, ‘Reconstruction of Norwegian Nineteenth Century Summer Temperatures by Proxy Data from Farmer's Diaries’, this volume.Google Scholar
  102. Norlind, A.: 1915, ‘Till frågan om det historiska klimatet, särskilt i Nord-och Mellaneuropa’, Ymer 1915, 83–97.Google Scholar
  103. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1982, Climate and society in Iceland from the medieval period to the late eighteenth century, A doctoral dissertation, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich.Google Scholar
  104. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1984 ‘The Past Climate and Sea-ice Record from Iceland. Part 1: Data to A. D. 1780’, Climatic Change 6, 131–152.Google Scholar
  105. Ogilvie, A. E. J., 1986: ‘The climate of Icceland, 1701–1784’, Jökull 36, 57–73.Google Scholar
  106. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1991, ‘Climatic changes in Iceland A. D. c. 865 to 1598’, in The Norse of the North Atlantic (Presented by Bigelow, G. F.), Acta Archaeologica 61 1990, 233–251.Google Scholar
  107. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1992, ‘Documentary evidence for changes in the climate of Iceland, A. D. 1500 to 1800’, in Bradley, R. S. and Jones, P. D. (eds), Climate Since A.D. 1500, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 92–117.Google Scholar
  108. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1993, ‘The climate of Scandinavia in medieval times’, in Pulsiano, P., and Wolf, K. with Acker, P. and Fry, D. K. (eds), Medieval Scandinavia: An Encyclopedia, Garland Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages, Garland Publishing, New York and London, pp. 94–96.Google Scholar
  109. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1996, ‘Sea-ice conditions off the coasts of Iceland A.D. 1601–1850 with special reference to part of the Maunder Minimum period (1675–1717)’, AmS-Varia 25, Archaeological Muscum of Stavanger, Norway, 9–12.Google Scholar
  110. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 1998, ‘Historical accounts of weather events and related matters in Iceland and Greenland, A.D. c. 1250 to 1430’, in Frenzel, B. (ed.), Documentary Climatic Evidence for 1750–1850 and the 14th century, Paläoklimaforschung 23, Special Issues: ESF Project “European Palaeoclimate and Man” 15, European Science Foundation, Strasbourg, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literature, Mainz, pp. 25–43.Google Scholar
  111. Ogilvie, A. E. J.: 2000, ‘Climate and farming in northern Iceland, ca. 1700–1850’, in Sigurðsson, I. and Skaptason, J. (eds), Aspects of Arctic and Sub-Arctic History. Proceedings of the International Congress on the History of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Region, Reykijavík 18–21 June 1998, University of Iceland Press, Reykjavík, in press.Google Scholar
  112. Ogilvie, A. E. J. and Farmer, G.: 1997, ‘Documenting the medieval climate’, in Hulme, M. and Barrow, E. (eds), Cimates of the British Isles, Routledge, London and New York, pp. 112–133.Google Scholar
  113. Ogilvie, A. E. J., Barlow, L. K., and Jennings, A. E.: 2000, ‘North Atlantic climate c. A.D. 1000: Millennial reflections on the Viking discoveries of Iceland, Greenland and North American’, Weather 55, 34–45.Google Scholar
  114. Ólafsson, B. (1967) ‘Harðindaárin 1751–1757’ (The dearth years 1751–1757), Unpublished dissertation, University of Iceland, Reykjavík.Google Scholar
  115. Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., Finney, B., Gajewski, K., Jacoby, G., Jennings, A., Lamoureux, S., Lasca, A., MacDonald, G., Moore, J., Retelle, M., Smith, S., Wolfe, A., and Zielinski, G.: 1997, ‘Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries’, Science 278, 1251–1256.Google Scholar
  116. Pettersson, O.: 1913, ‘Klimatförändringar i historisk och förhistorisk tid’, Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar 51,No. 2Google Scholar
  117. Pettersson, O.: 1914, ‘Climatic variations in historic and prehistoric time’, Svenska Hydrografisk-Biologiska Kommissionens Krifter 5, 1–26.Google Scholar
  118. Pfister, C. Lutterbacher, J., Schwarz-Zanetti, G., and Wegmann, M.: 1998, ‘Winter air temperature variations in western Europe during the early and middle Ages (AD 750–1300)’, Holocene 8, 535–552.Google Scholar
  119. Porter, S. C.: 1981, ‘Glaciological evidence of Holocene climatic change’, in Wigley, T. M. L., Ingram, M. J. and Farmer, G. (eds), Climate and History. Studies in past climates and their impact on Man, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 82–110.Google Scholar
  120. Porter, S. C.: 1986, ‘Pattern and forcing of northern hemisphere glacier variations during the last millennium’, Quartenary Research 26, 27–48.Google Scholar
  121. Sebagenzi, M. N., Vasseur, G., and Louis, P.; 1992, ‘Recent warming in southeastern Zaire (Central Africa) inferred from disturbed geothermal gradients’, Global and Planetary Change 6, 209–217.Google Scholar
  122. Selsing, L.: 1998, ‘Interdiscipinary palaeoclimatic research at the Museum of Archaeology, Stavanger, Norway’, in Frenzel, B. (ed.) Documentary Climatic Evidence for 1750–1850 and the 14th century. Paläoklimaforschung 23, Special Issues: ESF Project “European Palaeoclimate and Man” 15, European Science Foundation, Strasbourg, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, pp. 63–69.Google Scholar
  123. Shen, P. Y., Pollack, H. N., and Huang, S.: 1996, ‘Inference of ground surface temperature history from borehole temperature data: a comparison of two inverse methods’, Global and Planetary Change 14, 49–57.Google Scholar
  124. Skinner, W. R. and Majorowicz, J. A.: 1999, ‘Regional climatic warming and associated twentieth century land-cover changes in north-western North America’, Climate Research 12, 39–52.Google Scholar
  125. Sigfúsdóttir, A. B.: 1969, ‘Hitabreytingar á Íslandi 1846–1968’ (Temperature variations in Iceland 1846–1968), in Einarsson, M. Á. (ed.), Hafísinn (The Sea Ice), Almenna bókafélagið, Reykjavík, pp. 70–79.Google Scholar
  126. Speerschneider, C. I. H.: 1915, Om Isforholdene i danske Farvande i œldre og nyere Tid. Aarene 690–1860. Meddelelser Nr. 2, Publikationer fra det Danske Meteorol, Institut, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  127. Tarand, A. and Nordli, P. Ø.: 2001, ‘The Tallinn Temperature Series Reconstructed back half a Millennium by use of Proxy Data’, this volume.Google Scholar
  128. Thórarinsson, S.: 1943, ‘Oscillations of the Iceland glaciers in the last 250 Years’, Chapter XI in Vatnajökull, Scientific results of the Swedish-Icelandic investigations 1936–37–38. Geografiska Annaler 1–2, 1–54.Google Scholar
  129. Thórarinsson, S.: 1956a, ‘The thousand years struggle’, in Thórarinsson, S. The Thousand Years Struggle Against Ice and Fire, Bókaútgáfa Menningarsjóðs, Reykjavík 5–33.Google Scholar
  130. Thórarinsson, S.: 1996b, ‘Ísland þjóðveldistímans og menning í ljósi landfræðilegra staðreynda’ (The Icelandic commonwealth and culture in the light of geographica facts), Skírnir 130, 236–248.Google Scholar
  131. Thórarinsson, S.: 1974, ‘Sambúð lands og lýðs í ellefu aldir’ (The coexistence of country and people through eleven hundred years), in Líndal, S., (ed.), Saga Íslands, I. bindi, Hið, íslenska bókmenntafélag, Sögufélagið, Reykijavík, pp. 29–97.Google Scholar
  132. Thoroddsen, Þ.: 1982–1904, Landfrœðissaga íSlands. Hugmyndir manna um Ísland, náttúruskoðun og rannsóknir fyrr og síðar I–IV (The Historiography of the natural sciences in Iceland), Hið Íslenska bókmenntafélag, Reykijavík 1892–1896, Copenhagen 1898–1904.Google Scholar
  133. Thoroddsen, Þ.: 1908–1922, Lýsing Íslands I–IV (A descrption of Iceland), Hið íslenska bókmenntafélag, Copenhagen 1908–1922.Google Scholar
  134. Thoroddsen, Þ.: 1914, ‘Islands Klima i Oldtiden’, Geografisk Tidskrift 22, 204–216.Google Scholar
  135. Thoroddsen, Þ.: 1916–1917, Árferði á Íslandi í þúsund ár (The climate of Iceland through one thousand year), Hið íslenska fræðafélag, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  136. Thoroddsen, Þ.: 1922–1923, Minningabók (Memoris), Hið íslenska fræðafélag, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  137. Vasey, D. E.: 2001, ‘A Quantitative Assessment of Buffers among Temperature Variations, Livestock and the Human Population of Iceland, 1784–1900’, this volume.Google Scholar
  138. Vilmundarson, Þ.: 1969, ‘Heimildir um hafís á síðari öldum’ (Historical sources on sea ice during the early modern period), in Einarsson, M. Á. (ed.), Hafísinn, Almenna bókafélagið, Reykjavík, pp. 313–332.Google Scholar
  139. Vilmundarson, Þ.: 1972, ‘Evaluation of historical sources on sea ice near Iceland’ in Karlsson (ed.), Sea Ice, Proceedings of an international conference, National Research Council, Reykjavík, pp. 159–169.Google Scholar
  140. Wallevik, J. E. and Sigurjónsson, H.: 1998, The Koch index: Formulation, correction and extension VÍ-G98035-ÚR28, Icelandic Meteorological Office, Reykjavík.Google Scholar
  141. White, J. W. C., Barlow, L. K., Fisher, D. Grootes, P., Jouzel, J., Johnsen, S. J., Stuiver, M., and Clausen, H.: 1997, ‘The climate signal in the stable isotopes of snow from Summit, Greenland: results of comparisons with modern climate observations’, Journal of Geophysical Research 102,C12, 26426–26439.Google Scholar
  142. Wigley, T. M. L. and Raper, S. C. B.: 1995, ‘Modeling low-fequency climate variability: the green-house effect and the interpretation of paleoclimatic data’, in Martinson, K., Bryan, M., Ghil, M., Karl, T. R., Sarachik, E. S., Sorooshian, S., Talley, L. D. (eds), Natural ClimateVariability on Decade-to-CenturyTtime Scales. National Research Council, Washington, D. C., 169–174.Google Scholar
  143. Williams, L. and Wigley, T. M. L.: 1983, ‘A comparison of evidence for Late Holocene summer temperature variations in the northern hemisphere’, Quarternary Research 20, 286–307.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • A.E.J. Ogilvie
    • 1
  • T. Jónsson
    • 2
  1. 1.INSTAARUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.Icelandic Meteorological OfficeReykjavíkIceland

Personalised recommendations