Advertisement

Climatic Change

, Volume 48, Issue 1, pp 219–241 | Cite as

Zonal Indices for Europe 1780–1995 and Running Correlations with Temperature

  • Jucundus Jacobeit
  • Peter Jönsson
  • Lars Bärring
  • Christoph Beck
  • Marie Ekström
Article

Abstract

Zonal circulation indices with monthly and seasonal resolutions are calculated based on gridded monthly mean sea-level pressure (SLP) reconstructed back to 1780 by Jones et al. (1999): an overall zonal index for the whole European area between 30°W and 40°E, a normalized index for the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and a similar index for Central Europe. For most of the early time up to the mid-nineteenth century we get preferred negative anomalies in the NAO index for winter and preferred positive ones for summer. The turning points in cumulative anomalies - during the 1850s for winter and during the 1870s for summer - indicate a transition period in circulation modes from the "Little Ice Age" to the recent climate in Europe. Running correlations (time windows of 21 years with time steps of one year) between zonal indices and regional temperature time series from Central England, Stockholm and two Central European regions are all indicating major instationarities in these relationships with a particular decline in winter correlations around the turn from the nineteenth to the twentieth centuries. Aspects of different circulation patterns linked with these variabilities are discussed.

zonal indices running correlations temperature Europe 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barnston, A.G. and Livezey, R.E.: 1987, ‘Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns’, Mon. Wea. Rev. 115, 1083–1126.Google Scholar
  2. Bärring, L., Jönsson, P., Achberger, C., Ekström, M. and Alexandersson, H.: 1999, ‘The Lund record of meteorological instrument observations: reconstruction of monthly sea-level pressure 1780–1997’, Int. J. Climatol. 19, 1427–1443.Google Scholar
  3. Beck, C.: 2000, ‘Zirkulationsdynamische Variabilität im Bereich Nordatlantik-Europa seit 1780’, Würzburger Geographische Arbeiten (in press).Google Scholar
  4. Böhm, R., Auer, I., Hagen, M. and Schöner, W.: 1998, ‘Is there a NAO-signal in Alpine climate time series?’, Abstracts of The Second International Climate and History Conference, Norwich 1998, 36.Google Scholar
  5. Corti, S., Molteni, F. and Palmer, T.N.: 1999, ‘Signature of recent climate change in frequencies of natural atmospheric circulation regimes’, Nature 398, 799–802.Google Scholar
  6. Dickson, R., Lazier, J., Meincke, J. Rhines, P. and Swift, J.: 1996, ‘Long-term coordinated changes in the convective activity of the North Atlantic’, Progr. Oceanogr. 38, 241–295.Google Scholar
  7. Fitzharris, B.: 1998, ‘A synoptic climatology of glacier mass balance for the European Alps’, in Climate and Environmental Change, International Geographical Union, Commission on Climatology, Evora 1998, 141–142.Google Scholar
  8. Flohn, H.: 1993, ‘Climatic evolution during the last millenium: what can we learn from it?’, in Eddy, J.A. and Oeschger, H. (eds.), Global Changes in the Perspective of the Past, Wiley & Sons, Chichester et al., pp. 295–316.Google Scholar
  9. Hoinkes, H.C.: 1968, ‘Glacier variations and weather’, J. Glaciol. 7, 3–19.Google Scholar
  10. Hurrell, J.W.: 1995, ‘Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation’, Science 269, 676–679.Google Scholar
  11. Hurrell, J.W.: 1996, ‘Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature’, Geophys. Res. Let. 23, 665–668.Google Scholar
  12. Hurrell, J.W. and van Loon, H.: 1997, ‘Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation’, Clim. Change 36, 301–326.Google Scholar
  13. Jacobeit, J., Beck, C. and Philipp, A.: 1998, ‘Annual to decadal variability in climate in Europe — objectives and results of the German contribution to the European climate research project ADVICE’, Würzburger Geographische Manuskripte 43, 163 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Jones, P.D., Jonsson, T. and Wheeler, D.: 1997, ‘Extension of the North Atlantic Oscillation using early instrumental pressure observations from Gibraltar and south-west Iceland’, Int. J. Climatol. 17, 1433–1450.Google Scholar
  15. Jones, P. D., Davies, T. D., Lister, D. H., Slonosky, V., Jonsson, T., Bärring, L., Jönsson, P., Maheras, P., Kolyva-Machera, F., Barriendos, M., Martin-Vide, J., Alcoforado, M. J., Wanner, H., Pfister, C., Schuepbach, E., Kaas, E., Schmith, T., Jacobeit, J. and Beck, C.: 1999: ‘Monthly mean pressure reconstructions for Europe for the 1780–1995 period’, Int. J. Climatol. 19, 347–364.Google Scholar
  16. Jönsson, P. and Bärring, L.: 1994, ‘Zonal index variations, 1899–1992, and links to air temperature in southern Scandinavia’, Geogr. Ann. 76A, 207–219.Google Scholar
  17. Kuhn, M., Markl, G., Kaser, G., Nickus, U., Obleitner, F. and Schneider, H.: 1985, ‘Fluctuations of climate and mass balance: different responses of two adjacent glaciers’, Z. Gletscherkunde u. GlaziaIgeologie 21, 409–416.Google Scholar
  18. Lamb, P.J. and Peppler, R.A.: 1987, ‘North Atlantic Oscillation: Concept and application’, Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 68, 1218–1225.Google Scholar
  19. Mächel, H., Kapala, A. and Flohn, H.: 1998, ‘Behaviour of the centres of action above the Atlantic since 1881. Part I: Characteristics of seasonal and interannual variability’, Int. J. Climatol. 18, 1–22.Google Scholar
  20. Malberg, H. and Bökens, G.: 1997, ‘Die Winter-und Sommertemperaturen in Berlin seit 1929 und ihr Zusammenhang mit der Nordatlantischen Oszillation (NAO)’, Meteorol. Z. N.F. 6, 230–234.Google Scholar
  21. Manley G.: 1974, ‘Central England Temperatures: monthly means 1659 to 1973’, Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 100, 389–405.Google Scholar
  22. Moberg, A. and Bergström, H.: 1997, ‘Homogenization of Swedish temperature data. Part III: The temperature records from Uppsala and Stockholm’, Int. J. Climatol. 17, 667–699.Google Scholar
  23. Moses, T., Kiladis, G. N., Diaz, H. F. and Barry, R. G.: 1987, ‘Characteristics and frequency of reversals in mean sea level pressure in the North Atlantic sector and their relationship to long-term temperature trends’, J. Climatol. 7, 12–30.Google Scholar
  24. Oerlemans, J., Anderson, B., Hubbard, A., Huybrechts, Ph., Jóhannesson, T., Knap, W. H., Schmeits, M., Stroeven, A. P., van de Wal, R. S. W., Wallinga, J. and Zou, Z.: 1998, ‘Modelling the response of glaciers to climate warming’, Clim. Dyn. 14, 267–274.Google Scholar
  25. Oerlemans, J.: 1994, ‘Quantifying global warming from the retreat of glaciers’, Science 264, 243–245.Google Scholar
  26. Parker D. E., Legg T. P. and Folland C. K.: 1992, ‘A new daily Central England Temperature series, 1772–1991’, Int. J. Climatol. 12, 317–42.Google Scholar
  27. Pohjola, V. A. and Rogers, J. C.: 1997; ‘Coupling between the atmospheric circulation and extremes of the mass balance of Storglaciären, northern Scandinavia’, Ann. Glaciol. 24, 229–233.Google Scholar
  28. Rodríguez, R., et al: (subm.), ‘The long pressure series of Barcelona (Spain), daily reconstruction and monthly homogenization’, Int. J. Climatol. (submitted).Google Scholar
  29. Rogers, J.C.: 1984, ‘The association between the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Southern Oscillation in the Northern Hemisphere’, Mon. Wea. Rev. 112, 1999–2015.Google Scholar
  30. Rogers, J. C.: 1985, ‘Atmospheric circulation changes associated with the warming over the northern North Atlantic in the 1920s’, J. Clim. Appl. Met. 24, 1303–1310.Google Scholar
  31. Rogers, J.C.: 1990, ‘Patterns of low-frequency monthly sea-level pressure variability (1899–1986) and associated wave cyclone frequencies’, J. Clim. 3, 1364–1379.Google Scholar
  32. Schmutz, C. and Wanner, H.: 1998, ‘Low frequency variability of atmospheric circulation over Europe between 1785 and 1994’, Erdkunde 52, 81–94.Google Scholar
  33. Schönwiese, C.-D. and Rapp, J.: 1997, ‘Climate trend atlas of Europe, based on observations 1891–1990’, Kluwer, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  34. Steig, E. and Barlow, L.: 1998, ‘High-resolution proxy climate data from ice cores — an overview’, Abstracts of The Second International Climate and History Conference, Norwich 1998, 29.Google Scholar
  35. Steinrücke, J.: 1999, ‘Changes in the Northern Hemispheric Zonal Circulation and their relationship to precipitation frequencies in Europe’, Bochumer Geographische Arbeiten 65, 135 pp.Google Scholar
  36. Wanner, H., Gyalistras, D., Luterbacher, J., Rickli, R., Salvisberg, E. and Schmutz, C.: 2000, ‘Klimawandel im Schweizer Alpenraum’, Vdf Hochschulverlag AG, Zürich.Google Scholar
  37. World Climate Disc: 1992, ‘Global Climate Change Data’, Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jucundus Jacobeit
    • 1
  • Peter Jönsson
    • 2
  • Lars Bärring
    • 3
  • Christoph Beck
    • 1
  • Marie Ekström
    • 3
  1. 1.Geographical InstituteUniversity of WürzburgGermany
  2. 2.Malmö UniversitySweden
  3. 3.Department of Physical GeographyLund UniversitySweden

Personalised recommendations