Advertisement

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 475–479 | Cite as

Immunological Treatments for Autism

  • Sudhir Gupta
Article

Abstract

Several investigators, including ourselves, have reported significant changes in various immune responses in children with autism. These changes demonstrate dysregulation of the immune system (deficiency in some components of the immune system and excesses in others). In addition, certain genes in the major histocompatibility complex (that regulates immune responses) appear to be involved in autism. Based upon immunological abnormalities, various treatment modalities have been applied to children with autism. In this brief review, these immunological changes and various biological therapies are analyzed and summarized.

Autism major histocompatibility complex immunological abnormalities 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Cardinali, D. P. (1977). Effect of pentoxifylline and theophylline on neurotransmitter uptake and release by synaptosome-rich homogenates of the rat hypothalamus. Neuropharmacology, 16, 785–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Fiers, W., & Buurman, W. A. (Eds). (1993). Tumor necrosis factor: Molecular and Cellular Biology and Clinical Relevance. Basel, Switzerland: Karger.Google Scholar
  3. Fudenberg, H. H. (1996). Dialyzable lymphocyte extract (DlyE) in infantile onset autism: A pilot study. Biotherapy, 9, 143–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gupta, S. (1998). Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in neurological disorders. Western Journal of Medicine, 167, 349–350.Google Scholar
  5. Gupta, S. (1999). Treatment of children with autism with intravenous immunoglobulin. Journal of Child Neurology, 14, 203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gupta, S., Aggarwal S., & Heads, C. (1996). Dysregulated immune system in children with autism: Beneficial effects of intravenous immune globulin on autistic characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 439–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Gupta, S., Lee, T., & Aggarwal, S. (1998). Alterations in Th1 and Th2 subsets of CD4??and CD8??T cells in autism. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 14, 499–504.Google Scholar
  8. Gupta, S., Rimland, B., & Shilling, P. D. (1996) Pentoxyfylline: A brief review and rationale for its possible use in the treatment of autism. Journal of Child Neurology, 11, 501–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hawkins, E. S., & Ribeiro, H. A. (1987). Pentoxifylline review. Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association, 77, 645–647.Google Scholar
  10. Kitatani, T., Watanabe, T., & Shibuya, T. (1993). Different effects of methyxanthines on central serotonergic postsynaptic neurons in a mouse behavioral model. Pharmacology Biochemical Behavior, 44, 457–461.Google Scholar
  11. Menage, P., Thibault, G., Barthelemy, C., Lelford, G., & Bardos, P. (1992). CD4??CD45RA??T lymphocyte deficiency in autistic children: Effect of a pyridoxin-magnesium treatment. Brain Dysfunction, 5, 326–333.Google Scholar
  12. Mintz, M., Rapaport, R., Oleske, J. M., Connor, E. A., Koenigsberger, M. R., & Denny, T. (1989). Elevated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor are associated with progressive encephalopathy in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 143, 771–774.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mountz, J. M., Tolbert, L. C., Lill, D. W., Katholic, C. R., & Liu, H. G. (1995). Functional deficits in autistic disorder: Characterization by technetium-99m-HMPAO and SPECT. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 38, 1156–1162.Google Scholar
  14. Plioplys, A. V. (1998). Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment of children with autism. Journal of Child Neurology, 13, 79–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Romagnani, S. (1995). Biology of Th1 and Th2 cells. Journal of Clinical Immunology, 15, 121–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Rumsey, J. M., & Ernst, M. (in press). Functional neuroimaging of autistic disorders. Invited review. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews. Google Scholar
  17. Schandene, L., Vandenbussche, P., Crusiaux, A., Alegre, M. L., Abramowicz, D., DuPont, E., Content, J., & Goldman, M. (1992). Differential effects of pentoxifylline on the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by monocytes and T cells. Immunology, 76, 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Schwartz, S. A. (1990). Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the therapy of autoimmune disorders. Journal of Clinical Immunology, 10, 81–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Singh, V. K., Warren, R. P., Odell, J. D., Cole, P., & Warren, L. (1993). Antibodies to myelin basic protein in children with autistic behavior. Brain, Behavior and Immnity, 7, 97–103.Google Scholar
  20. Singh, V. K., Warren, R. P., Averett, R., & Ghaziuddin M. (1997). Circulating autoantibodies to neuronal and glial filament protein in autism. Pediatric Neurology, 17, 88–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Wakefield, A. J., Murch, S. H., Anthony, A., Linnell, J., Casson, D. M., Malik, M., Berelowitz, M., Dhillon, A. P., Thomson, M. A., Harvey, P., Valentine, A., Davies, S. E., & Walker-Smith, J. A. (1998). Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet, 351, 637–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Warren, R. P, Foster, A., & Margaretten, N. C. (1987). Reduced natural killer cell activity in autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 333–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Warren, R. P., Foster, A., Margaretten, N. C., Pace, N. C., & Foster, A. (1986). Immune abnormalities in patients with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 189–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Warren, R. P., Odell, J. D., Warren, W. L., Burger, R. A., Maciulis, A., Daniles, W. W., & Torres, A. R. (1996). Strong association of the third hypervariable region of HLA-DR??with autism. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 67, 97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Warren, R. P., Singh, V. K., Cole, P., Odell, J. D., Pingree, C. B., Warren, W. L., & White, E. (1991). Increased frequency of the null allele at the complement C4b locus in autism. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 83, 438–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Warren, R. P., Singh, V. K., Cole, P., Odell, J. D., Pingree, C. B., Warren, W. L., DeWitt, C. W., & McCullough, M. (1992). Possible association of the extended MHC haplotype B44-SC30-DR4 with autism. Immunogenetics, 36, 203–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Warren, R. P., Yonk, J., Burger, R. W., Odell, D., & Warren, W. L. (1995). DR-positive T cells in autism: Association with decreased plasma levels of the complement C4b protein. Neuropsychobiology, 31, 53–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Yonk, L. J., Warren, R. P., Burger, R. A., Cole, P., Odell, J. D., Warren, W. L., White, E., & Singh, V. K. (1990). CD4??helper T cell depletion in autism. Immunology Letters, 25, 344–346.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudhir Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Basic and Clinical Immunology, Medical Sciences IUniversity of CaliforniaIrvine

Personalised recommendations