Climatic Change

, Volume 43, Issue 1, pp 169–200 | Cite as

Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation Fluctuations in Selected Parts of Europe During the Sixteenth Century

  • Rüdiger Glaser
  • Rudolf Brázdil
  • Christian Pfister
  • Petr Dobrovolný
  • Mariano Barriendos Vallvé
  • Anita Bokwa
  • Dario Camuffo
  • Oldrich Kotyza
  • Danuta Limanówka
  • Lajos Rácz
  • Fernando S. Rodrigo


The article in hand presents a comparative analysis of unweighted thermic and hygric index series of different European regions (northern Switzerland, Germany, the Czech Republic, northern Italy, ancient Hungary, Poland and Spain). Besides methodological aspects about the formation of indices, especially the progress as well as the question of similarity development of these series in the 16th century are discussed and shown on the balance sheet. It becomes evident that with respect to the temperature on the level of unweighted indices the European regions of Germany, the Czech Republic and Switzerland are very similar during all seasons. In winter and summer these correlations are especially evident, during the transitional seasons they are smaller. Larger differences exist between the central European core region and the adjacent areas of research. In principle, the hygric differences are larger than the thermic ones.

In the course of the sixteenth century marked cooling phases occurred during all seasons with increasing accentuation. These phases were typical for the climate of the Little Ice Age. In addition to this long-term analysis, some outstanding years of extreme weather like those of 1540, 1573 and 1587 are presented, in the course of which questions of climatic impact are included. Finally, recent instrumental data was used to conduct an analysis that compared the similarities between the respective regions and the similarities between the empirical data and indices. On the one hand, this confirmed the spatial pattern, on the other hand the usability of the indices.


Czech Republic European Region Balance Sheet Climatic Impact Seasonal Temperature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rüdiger Glaser
    • 1
  • Rudolf Brázdil
    • 2
  • Christian Pfister
    • 3
  • Petr Dobrovolný
    • 2
  • Mariano Barriendos Vallvé
    • 4
  • Anita Bokwa
    • 5
  • Dario Camuffo
    • 6
  • Oldrich Kotyza
    • 7
  • Danuta Limanówka
    • 8
  • Lajos Rácz
    • 9
  • Fernando S. Rodrigo
    • 10
  1. 1.Geographisches InstitutUniversität WürzburgWürzburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of GeographyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  3. 3.Institute of HistoryUniversity of BernBern 9Switzerland
  4. 4.Department of Physical GeographyUniversity of BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  5. 5.Department of GeographyUniversity of CracowPoland
  6. 6.CNR-ICTIMAPadovaItaly
  7. 7.Museum of Local HistoryLitomericeCzech Republic
  8. 8.Institute of Meteorology and Water ManagementUniversity of CracowCracowPoland
  9. 9.Center of Regional Studies of Hungarian Academy of SciencesKecskemetHungary
  10. 10.Department of Applied PhysicsUniversity of AlmeriaAlmeriaSpain

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