Climatic Change

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 1–15


  • C. U. Hammer
  • H. B. Clausen
  • C. C. LangwayJr.


The 2191 m long ice core recovered at Byrd Station Antarctica in 1968 (BS68) was measured continuously by an electrical conductivity method (ECM). The ECM curve inferes the acidity of seasonal ice layers and major peaks, which identify clearly intermediate and prominent past volcanic activity over the last 50,000 years. We here also present recent data for a suite of the most striking volcanic events that occurred around 17.5 ka ± 0.5 BP. These events emitted enormous amounts of HCl and HF into the atmosphere.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Clausen, H. B. and Hammer, C. U.: 1988, ‘The Laki and Tambora Eruptions as Revealed in Greenland Ice Cores from 11 Locations’, Ann. Glaciol. 10, 16-22.Google Scholar
  2. Cragin, J. H., Herron, M. M., Langway, C. C., Jr., and Klouda, G.: 1977, ‘Interhemispheric Comparison of Changes in the Composition of Atmospheric Precipitation during the Late Cenozic Era’, in Dunbar, M. J. (ed.), Polar Oceans -- Conference at Montreal 1974, pp. 617-631.Google Scholar
  3. Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S. J., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N. S., Hammer, C. U., Hvidberg, C. S., Steffensen, J. P., Sveinbjörnsdottir, A. E., Jouzel, J., and Bond, G.: 1993, ‘Evidence for General Instability of Past Climate from a 250-kyr Ice-Core Record’, Nature 364(6434), 218-220.Google Scholar
  4. Davidson, C. I., Harrington, J. R., Stephenson, M. J., Monaghan, M. C., Pudykiewicz, J., and Schell, W. R.: 1987, ‘Radioactive Cesium from the Chernobyl Accident in the Greenland Ice Sheet’, Science 237, 633-634.Google Scholar
  5. Delmas, R. J., Kirchner, S., Palais, J. M., and Petit, J.-R.: 1992, ‘1000 Years of Explosive Volcanism Recorded at the South Pole’, Tellus 44B, 335-350.Google Scholar
  6. Fisher D. A. and Koerner, R. M.: 1994, ‘Signal and Noise in Four Ice-Core Records from the Agassiz Ice Cap, Ellesmere Island, Canada: Details of the Last Millennium for Stable Isotopes, Melt and Solid Conductivity’, The Holocene 4(2), 113-120.Google Scholar
  7. Gow, A. J. and Williamson, T.: 1971, ‘Volcanic Ash in the Antarctic Ice Sheet and Its Possible Climatic Implications’, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 13,(1), 210-218.Google Scholar
  8. Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., and Dansgaard, W.: 1980, ‘Greenland Ice Sheet Evidence of Post-Glacial Volcanism and Its Climatic Impact’, Nature 288, 230-235.Google Scholar
  9. Hammer, C. U.: 1980, ‘Acidity of Polar Ice Cores in Relation to Absolute Dating, Past Volcanism, and Radio-Echoes’, J. Glaciol. 25, 359-372.Google Scholar
  10. Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., Dansgaard, W., Neftel, A., Kristinsdottir, P., and Johnson, E.: 1985, ‘Continuous Impurity Analysis along the Dye-3 Deep Core’, in Langway, C. C., Jr., Oeschger, H., and Dansgaard, W. (eds.), Greenland Ice Cores: Geophysics, Geochemistry and Environment, American Geophysical Union (AGU), Monograph, pp. 90-94.Google Scholar
  11. Hammer, C. U.: 1988, ‘Dating by Physical and Chemical Seasonal Variations and Reference Horizons’, in Oeschger, H. and Langway, C. C., Jr. (eds.), Physical, Chemical, and Earth Sciences Research Report, The Environmental Record in Glaciers and Ice Sheets, March 13–18, John Wiley and Sons, Berlin, Vol. 8, pp. 99-121.Google Scholar
  12. Hammer, C. U., Clausen, H. B., and Langway, C. C., Jr.: 1994, ‘Electrical Conductivity Method (ECM) Stratigraphic Dating of the Byrd Station Ice Core, Antarctica’, Ann. Glaciol. 20, 115-120.Google Scholar
  13. Jaffrezo, S. J. and Davidson, C. I.: 1993, ‘Sulfate and MSA in Air and Snow on the Greenland Icesheet’, in Heidam, N. Z. (ed.), Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Arctic Air Chemistry, Copenhagen, Denmark, September 8–10, 1992, National Environmental Research Institute, Technical Report No. 70.Google Scholar
  14. Johnsen, S. J., Dansgaard, W., Clausen, H. B., and Langway, C. C., Jr.: 1972, ‘Oxygen Isotope Profiles Through the Antarctic and Greennland Ice Sheets (Errata)’, Nature 236, 249.Google Scholar
  15. Langway, C. C., Jr., Clausen, H. B., and Hammer, C. U.: 1988, ‘An Inter-Hemispheric Volcanic Time-Marker in Ice Cores from Greenland and Antarctica’, Ann. Glaciol. 10, 102-108.Google Scholar
  16. Langway, C. C., Jr., Osada, K., Clausen, H. B., Hammer, C. U., Shoji, H., and Mitani, A.: 1994, ‘New Chemical Stratigraphy over the Last Millennium for Byrd Station, Antarctica’, Tellus 46B, 40-51.Google Scholar
  17. Legrand, M. and Delmas, R. J.: 1987, ‘A 220-Year Continuous Record of Volcanic H2SO4 in the Antarctic Ice Sheet’, Nature 327, 671-676.Google Scholar
  18. Moore, J. G. and Calk, L. C.: 1991, ‘Degassing and Differentiation in Subglacial Volcanoes, Iceland’, Journ. of Volcanol. and Geotherm. Res. 46, 157-180.Google Scholar
  19. Saigne, C., Kirchner, S., and Legrand, M.: 1987, ‘Ion-Chromatographic Measurements of Ammonium, Fluoride, Acetate, Formate and Methanesulphonate Ions at Very Low Levels in Antarctic Ice’, Analytica Chimica Acta 203, 11-21.Google Scholar
  20. Shoji, H. and Langway, C. C., Jr.: 1982, ‘Air Hydrate Inclusions in Fresh Ice Core’, Nature 298(5874), 548-550.Google Scholar
  21. Shoji, H. and Langway, C. C., Jr.: 1985, ‘Mechanical Properties of Fresh Ice Core from Dye 3’, Greenland, in Langway, C. C., Jr., Oeschger, H., and Dansgaard, W. (eds.), Greenland Ice Core: Geophysics, Geochemistry and the Environment, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 39-48.Google Scholar
  22. Simkin, T. and Siebert, L.: 1994, Volcanoes of the World, Second ed., Geoscience Press & Smithsonian Institution, p. 349.Google Scholar
  23. Zielinski, G. A., Mayewski, L. D., Meeker, L. D., Whitlow, S. Twickler, M. S., Morrison, M., Meese, D. A., Gow, A. J., Alley, R. B.: 1994, ‘Record of Volcanism since 7000 B.C. from the GISP2 Greenland Ice Core and Implications for the Volcano-Climate System’, Science 264, 948-952, 1994.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. U. Hammer
    • 1
  • H. B. Clausen
    • 1
  • C. C. LangwayJr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geophysics, The Niels Bohr Institute of Astronomy, Physics and GeophysicsUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen ØDenmark
  2. 2.Ice Core Laboratory, Department of GeologyState University of New York at BuffaloAmherstU.S.A

Personalised recommendations