Space Science Reviews

, Volume 95, Issue 1–2, pp 625–637 | Cite as

The Sun–Earth Connection in Time Scales from Years to Decades and Centuries

  • T.I. Pulkkinen
  • H. Nevanlinna
  • P.J. Pulkkinen
  • M. Lockwood


The Sun–Earth connection is studied using long-term measurements from the Sun and from the Earth. The auroral activity is shown to correlate to high accuracy with the smoothed sunspot numbers. Similarly, both geomagnetic activity and global surface temperature anomaly can be linked to cyclic changes in the solar activity. The interlinked variations in the solar magnetic activity and in the solar irradiance cause effects that can be observed both in the Earth's biosphere and in the electromagnetic environment. The long-term data sets suggest that the increase in geomagnetic activity and surface temperatures are related (at least partially) to longer-term solar variations, which probably include an increasing trend superposed with a cyclic behavior with a period of about 90 years.


Surface Temperature Solar Activity Sunspot Number Solar Irradiance Geomagnetic Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baker, D. N.: 1998, ‘What is Space Weather?’, Adv. Space Res. 22 (7).Google Scholar
  2. Beer, J., Tobias, S., and Weiss, N.: 1998, ‘An active sun throughout the Maunder minimumv, Solar Phys. 181, 237.Google Scholar
  3. Callis, L. B. and Lambeth, J. D.: 1998, ‘NOY Formed by Precipitating Electron Events in 1991 and 1992; Descent Into the Stratosphere as Observed by ISAMS’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1875.Google Scholar
  4. Cliver, E.W. and Boriakoff, V.: 1996, ‘The 22-Year Cycle of Geomagnetic and SolarWind Activity’, J. Geophys. Res. 101, 27091.Google Scholar
  5. Cliver, E. W., Boriakoff, V., and Feynman, J.: 1998, ‘Solar Variability and Climate Change: Geomagnetic aa Index and Global Surface Temperature’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1035.Google Scholar
  6. Feynman, J.: 1988, in F. R. Stephenson and A. W. Wolfendale (eds), ‘Geomagnetic and auroral variations observed in historical data’, Secular Solar and geomagnetic Variations in the Last 10,000 Years: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop Held in Durham, England, April 6-10, 1987, p. 141.Google Scholar
  7. Friis-Christensen, E. and Lassen, K.: 1991, ‘Length of the Solar Cycle: An Indicator of Solar Activity Closely Associated with Climate’, Science 254, 698.Google Scholar
  8. Fritz, H.: 1873, Verzeichniss beobachteter Polarlichter. Wien, 255 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Frölich, C. and Lean, J.: 1998, ‘The Sun's Total Irradiance: Cycles, Trends and Related Climate Change Uncertainties Since 1976’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 4377.Google Scholar
  10. Gleissberg, W.: 1965, ‘The Eighty-Year Solar Cycle in Auroral Frequency Numbers’, J. Brit. Astron. Ass. 75, 227.Google Scholar
  11. Gonzales, W. D, Gonzales, A. L. C., and Tsurutani, B. T.: 1990, ‘Dual-Peak Solar Cycle Distribution of Intense Geomagnetic Storms’, Planetary Space. Sci. 38, 181.Google Scholar
  12. Gorney, D. J.: 1990, ‘Solar Cycle Effects on the Near-Earth Space Environment’, Rev. Geophys. 28, 315.Google Scholar
  13. Hathaway, D. H., Wilson, R. M., and Reichmann, E. R.: 1999, ‘A Synthesis of Solar Cycle Prediction Techniques’, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 22375.Google Scholar
  14. Jones, P. D., New, M., Parker, D. E., Martin, S., and Rigor, I. G.: 1999, ‘Surface Air Temperature and Its Changes over the Past 150 Years’, Rev. Geophys. 37, 173.Google Scholar
  15. Lean, J., Beer, J., and Bradley, R.: 1995, ‘Reconstruction of Solar Irradiance Since 1610: Implications for Climate Change’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 3195.Google Scholar
  16. Legrand J.-P., and P. A. Simon: 1987, ‘Two Hundred Years of Auroral Activity (1780-1979)’, Ann. Geophys. 3, 161.Google Scholar
  17. Lockwood, M. and R. Stamper: 1999, ‘Long-Term Drift of the Coronal Source Magnetic Flux and the Total Solar Irradiance’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2461.Google Scholar
  18. Lockwood, M., Stamper, R., and Wild, M. N.: 1999, ‘A Doubling of The Sun's Coronal Magnetic Field During the Past 100 Years’, Nature 3999, 437.Google Scholar
  19. Mayaud, P. N.: 1972, ‘The aa Indices: A 100-Year Series Characterizing the Magnetic Activity’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 6870.Google Scholar
  20. Nevanlinna, H.: 1995, ‘Auroral Observations in Finland-Visual Sightings During the 18th and 19th Centuries’, J. Geomagn. Geoelectr. 47, 953.Google Scholar
  21. Nevanlinna, H. and Kataja, E.: 1993, ‘An Extension of the Geomagnetic Activity Series aa for Two Solar Cycles (1844-1868)’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2703.Google Scholar
  22. Nevanlinna, H. and Pulkkinen, T. I.: 1998, ‘Solar Cycle Correlations of Substorm and Auroral Occurrence Frequencies’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3087.Google Scholar
  23. Nevanlinna, H. and Pulkkinen, T. I.: 2000, ‘Auroral Observations in Finland-Statistical Results from All-Sky Cameras 1973-1996’, J. Geophys. Res. (in press).Google Scholar
  24. Parker, D. E., Jones, P. D., Bevan, A., and Folland, C. K.: 1994, ‘Interdecadal Changes of Surface Temperatures Since the Late 19th Century’, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 14373.Google Scholar
  25. Perreault, P. and Akasofu, S.-I.: 1978, ‘A Study of Geomagnetic Storms’, Geophys. J. R. Astr. Soc. 54, 547.Google Scholar
  26. Pulkkinen, P. J., Brooke, J., Pelt, J., and Tuominen, I.: 1999, ‘Long-Term Variation of Sunspot Latitudes’, Astron. Astrophys. 341, L43.Google Scholar
  27. Silverman, S. M.: 1992, ‘Secular Variation of the Aurora for the Past 500 Years’, Rev. Geophys., 30, 333.Google Scholar
  28. Solanki, S. K. and Fligge, M.: 1999, ‘A Reconstruction of Total Solar Irradiance Since 1700’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 2465.Google Scholar
  29. Sonett, C. P.: 1982, ‘Sunspot Time Series: Spectrumfrom Square LawModulation of the Hale Cycle’, Geophys. Res. Lett. 12, 1313.Google Scholar
  30. Soon, W. H., Posmentier, E. S., and Baliunas, S. L.: 1996, ‘Inference of Solar Irradiance Variability from terrestrial Temperature Changes, 1880–1993: An Astrophysical Application of the Sun-Climate Connection’, Astr. J. 472, 891.Google Scholar
  31. Stamper, R., Lockwood, M., and Wild, M. N.: 1999, ‘Solar Causes of the Long-Term Increase in Geomagnetic activity’, J. Geophys. Res. 104, 28325.Google Scholar
  32. Svensmark, H. and Friis-Christensen, E.: 1997, ‘Variation of Cosmic Ray Flux and Global Cloud Coverage-a Missing Link in Solar-Climate Relationships’, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys. 59, 1225.Google Scholar
  33. Willson, R. C.: 1997, ‘Total Solar Irradiance Trend During Cycles 21 and 22’, Science 277, 1963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • T.I. Pulkkinen
    • 1
  • H. Nevanlinna
    • 1
  • P.J. Pulkkinen
    • 2
  • M. Lockwood
    • 3
  1. 1.Finnish Meteorological InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Academy of FinlandHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.World Data Centre C1Rutherford Appleton LaboratoryChilton, OxfordshireU.K

Personalised recommendations